Saturday, August 31, 2019

Achievements of Alfred Hitchcock Essay

Alfred Hitchcock, born in 1899 in England, remains a prominent figure in the world of cinema. Hitchcock’s passion for film began in his childhood with his first job as writer of the title cards for silent films and, later on, becoming a director. Influenced by his Catholic upbringing, Hitchcock developed a sense of guilt and sin throughout his life with which he portrays in his work (Kehoe N. P. ). As the leading director in the 1930’s, Hitchcock set the standard for international intrigue with his classic thrillers. His mastery of suspense and his unprecedented technique still makes him one of the most popular and celebrated film directors of all time (Flint N. P. ). Alfred Hitchcock has numerous accomplishments; the most noteworthy being his films Vertigo (1958), Psycho (1960), and The Birds (1963). Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo (1958) raises performance to such a personal level that it addresses the nature of human personality itself (Sterritt 113). The protagonist in the film is John â€Å"Scottie† Ferguson, a former police detective, who has been forced into early retirement due to vertigo and depression. Scottie is then hired as a private investigator to follow a woman, Madeleine Elster, who had been behaving peculiarly. Vertigo is a film that operates on emotions and negative feelings. Hitchcock’s use of â€Å"fade to black† illustrates his tendency to emphasize the film’s most emotionally meaningful moments with a touch of theatricality. This technique intensifies the otherworldliness that becomes Vertigo’s most significant quality (Sterritt 92). Vertigo has a clear association with insanity; Michel Foucault, a French social theorist, states that it â€Å"affords the delirious affirmation that the world is really ‘turning around,’† such delirium being â€Å"a necessary and sufficient reason for a disease to be called madness† (Sterritt 98). The repeated shot of Scottie’s troubled gaze into an abyss below solidifies the ingenuity and peculiarity of Vertigo (Sterritt 82). This shot provides a visual approximation of the psychological condition- extreme dizziness and disorientation- that is affecting Scottie. Hitchcock enhances the approach on point of view by providing information to the audience â€Å"through Scottie’s eyes† (Sterritt 83). Vertigo’s conclusion is unusual for its time because of its depiction of a neurotic hero, not a common feature in mainstream cinema (Sterritt 92). Alfred Hitchcock reached his artistic peak with his filming of Psycho (1960), which set a new level of acceptability for violence, deviant behavior and sexuality in American films (Flint N. P. ). The protagonist Marion Crane ends up at a secluded motel after embezzling money from her boss. She finds herself faced with the motel’s disturbed owner, Norman Bates. Hitchcock described the beginning of Psycho as a way of distracting the audience’s attention â€Å"in order to heighten the murder† (Baer N. P. ). One of the main themes in Psycho is voyeurism or the practice of spying on people engaged in intimate behaviors. Many critics feel that the film not only maintains a general sense of voyeurism, but a specific indictment of voyeurism with the audience- what Hitchcock called â€Å"Peeping Tom audiences. † Psycho manipulates the audience in supporting a thief, Marion Crane, which allows the viewers to become personally involved in the character’s guilt. Joseph Stefano, a writer for Hollywood films, states â€Å"In a more general sense, I think a fundamental essence of watching films is voyeuristic because we intrude so deeply into the characters’ lives—while sitting in the dark. It’s not necessarily sexual, although it can be, but its power to involve us with the characters is incredible† (Baer N. P. ). Alfred Hitchcock introduces a new narrative dimension in Psycho by including his personal appearance in the film; He faces away from the camera indicating his control over the film and keeping with theme of voyeurism (Sterritt 103). Hitchcock viewed his actors’ performance as the very essence of human identity; Psycho’s character Norman’s performance being the most profound of all of Hitchcock’s performances. Norman gives himself up to his character by assuming her voice, her appearance, her movements, and her thoughts. Hitchcock uniquely displays Norman’s performances with his use of window/curtain imagery. The windows and curtains indicate that the viewers are a â€Å"private audience† (Sterritt 113). By distancing the audience from the characters, Hitchcock achieves both an alienation affect and a sense of intimacy between the character and the audience (Sterritt 114). Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds (1963) is the most radical of all his films because of its refusal to return the audience to normality (Sterritt 121). When asked what the film was about, Hitchcock replied â€Å"people’s ‘lack of concern about the fact that nature can turn on them’† (Abrash 153). The Birds takes place in Bodega Bay, California, which suddenly undergoes a series of widespread and violent bird attacks. The Birds is a follow-up to Psycho with Hitchcock attempting to go further beyond the boundaries of rationality. Not only does the film display the irrational, but it also becomes the irrational by prohibiting natural causes to bring real and fantastic elements together. With the filming of The Birds, Hitchcock violates the rules of classical cinematic storytelling in order to actualize the fears that lurk in everyone’s unconsciousness (Sterritt 121). With the lack of a conventional ending, The Birds represents Hitchcock’s ultimate gesture of despair over the power of the characters. The protagonists remain in danger, the antagonists gain even more power, and the emotional relationships of the characters are only partially resolved. The resulting visual allows the characters to work towards a better world (Sterritt 124). The film critic Robin Wood’s interpretation of The Birds was â€Å"a concrete embodiment of the arbitrary and the unpredictable [†¦] a reminder of fragility and instability that cannot be ignored or evaded and, beyond that, of the possibility that life is meaningless and absurd† (Abrash 154). In carefully balancing the ordinary and the bizarre, Alfred Hitchcock was the most noted juggler of emotions in film history. The majority of his films were meticulous creations of nightmares consisting of peril and pursuit relieved by unexpected comic ironies and absurdities. Hitchcock’s style of always stressing imagery over dialogue gave him a distinct reputation. All of these achievements allowed Alfred Hitchcock to be the recipient of the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1967. When asked what his approach was on filmmaking, Hitchcock responded with â€Å"some films are slices of life, mine are slices of cake† (Flint N. P. ).

Friday, August 30, 2019

Food, food, food Essay

Comparing foods is something I’m sure everyone does. Like what tastes better, whether you like something more than the other. Even though I am a very picky person when it comes to food people will always catch me eating something. My opinion on this is everyone should be willing to try eating something different at some point in their lives. Everyone loves food, I mean we do have to eat right? I know food is one of my top favorite things in this world. I am going to put myself out there and try new thing. I am hoping I will enjoy eating some of the new things and if not well at least I can say I’ve tried it. I am Hispanic but Mexican food just doesn’t do it for me. I do like a few things like Carne Guisada and Cheese Enchiladas but of course since I am so picky my enchiladas have to be made with chili instead of enchilada sauce. To me the chili gives it a much better taste. I also love eating tamales but just the pork ones, they are delicious! If someone doesn’t like them well they are really missing out. During winter closer to Christmas is when my family and I usually eat them. I can probably eat a dozen alone. Everyone should try Chicken Enchilada Casserole, I haven’t tried that but I’ve heard it tastes good and it is something new. I will be telling my mom to make that the next time she asks what I want for dinner. Italian food is also really good, like the Chicken Parmesan, Lasagna, Spaghetti, Toscana Soup, you can’t forget about Pizza, and many others. Olive Garden is the closest I have had to real Italian food, and to me that is fine because well I like it. I have heard it is all frozen packaged foods, and that broke my heart but I refused to believe that until I find out for myself. I might just have to visit Italy one day where the food is made from scratch. I always tell myself I am going to try different Italian foods but once the waiter comes to me the first thing that comes out of my mouth is Chicken Parmesan I am addicted, it is my favorite. It is spaghetti with marinara sauce, breaded chicken on top and then I just add cheese on top. Stuffed Raviolis or Zesty Italian Crescent Casserole are new Italian dishes I am going to try. Just saying their makes my mouth water a little, so maybe I will fall in love with both. Some people love eating seafood, I don’t well just shrimp. But I will not go near fish any types of fish. In my opinion it is just gross and smells funny. I have tried a type of fish I think it is called Red Snapper. It was decently good, the smell wasn’t too bad and it was fried which made it a little better I had to put a good amount of lemon on it. But if I have a choice between fish and shrimp I am going for the shrimp. I’m not sure if many people have eaten or like shrimp cocktail but in my opinion it is mouthwatering. I have an uncle who makes a spicy shrimp cocktail it is the best. My mom claims she makes the best Octopus/Squid Soup but I have never tried it so I plan on forcing myself next time, at least a taste. I tried the Oysters from a restaurant Dirty Al’s and one word GROSS! Just one little bite and it made me sick and my stomach started hurting. I will never go near oysters again. I knew it was not going to like it but what counts is I tried it. I encourage you to try them hopefully your experience is a lot better than mine. My grandpa and I go hunting together, that is our bonding time. Because of that I have had the opportunity to eat deer and rabbit. The deer I love, it is something I recommend to those who have not tried it to try it. The taste is hard to explain but I am sure you will love it like I do. Rabbit to me taste like chicken, still good as deer just not as good. Alligator is next I can’t even imagine how it tastes so I will just have to wait and see. Those of you who have not eaten deer, rabbit or alligator go try it. Who knows you might surprise yourself with which one you will enjoy. There are millions of different types of foods out there in the world. Everyone just go out there and eat something you would have never thought of even touching. If you throw up after that’s okay just make sure nobody is watching.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Biology - Microbiology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Biology - Microbiology - Essay Example It is therefore essential to understand the microbes linked with the commodities we use in our everyday life. Microorganism vary widely in morphology displaying spherical, rod like or spiral shapes. One of the significant feature that is universal despite their appearances is they divide through binary fission. The cell grows to twice its size, DNA, the genetic material replicates and then the cell divides into two like cells which share the same genotype as the parent cell. The two newly formed cells are called the daughter cells as they receive one copy of each replicated DNA. Since the two daughter cells are genetically similar they are referred as clones. Cells descending from the parent cell form a mass of cells on the solid surface, agar plates and are known as colony. The colony is derived from a single cell and this is referred as colony forming unit (CFU) (Stanier, 1986). The cell divides into two new cells and then these two cells give rise to four new cells which eventuall y divides to form eight cells establishing a mathematical series called 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,... which can be expressed as 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,...with a base of 2. Such series is called the exponential series and the growth curve obtained displaying bacterial growth is called exponential growth curve highlighting the fact that bacterial population increases rapidly and possess short generation time equivalent to 30 minutes. With such a rapid pace of cell division the population of bacteria grows two fold in one hour and 16 fold in mere two hours. If the trend continues the population may attain trillion fold, but there is a check mechanism that limits the bacterial growth. Thus, instead of a constant steady rise in the population of bacterial cells, the bacterial growth curve displays four phases- A. The lag phase- It is the primary phase after the bacterial cells are inoculated in the growth medium. In this phase the bacterial cells do not divide, instead they prepare themselves w ith high metabolic rate for the cell division. If the nutrients are sufficient to support the growth and cellular requirements, the lag phase may be short. If the medium of inoculation is poor in nutrient requirement of the cell the time taken by the cells to prepare themselves to onset cell division, the cells are required to produce amino acids and vitamins, the bacterial growth displays long lag phase; as after active metabolism only the cells begin DNA replication. This is a preparatory step for the second phase of growth (Stanier, 1986). B. The log or the exponential phase of growth- In this phase the cells display rapid cell division. The time taken by the cells to produce daughter cells is regarded as the generation time. This phase is depicted as the steep rise in the bacterial growth. The generation time could be calculated by pointing two points on the straight line and calculating the time required to attain the same. However, the generation time depends on various factor s encompassing the organism, the growth medium as well the given temperature. Thus generation time varies between different bacterial species. Estimations reveal that fastest growing organisms have generation time of 15- 20 min under optimal growth provisions (Stanier, 1986). C. The stationary phase- in this phase the metabolism slows down and cells cease rapid cell division. Cells display declining metabolism as well as the rapid pace of cell division also reduces. Stationary phase is initiated by the altered

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The topic must follow the requements Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The topic must follow the requements - Essay Example Millions of people are carrying out abortion globally, this number has become stable in latest years, having formerly taken decades decreasing as access to proper family planning education, and other health care services improved. Abortion has a deep history and medicine men used various ways, for instance, they used sharpened tools and other conventional techniques. The occurrence, religious and literary status, and validity of abortion differ greatly around the universe. Its viability depends on certain unavoidable conditions, such as fetal defects and rapes. In America, there is major and critical social controversy over the right and the society’s legal issues of abortion. The people who oppose abortion connect it with the act of malicious homicide, while supporters of the rights of abortion lay emphasis on a woman’s right to choose about her own body. The history of induced abortion traces back to early civilizations such as ancient Egypt, China under Shennong (270 0 BC) and the Roman Empire. There is proof to imply that traditional medical practitioners terminated human pregnancies by applying various ancient techniques. Some elite scholars in medicine have shown that the Hippocratic vow forbade medicine men from carrying out abortions. ... Early Islamic religion had allowed abortion until a certain period that Muslims condemned it, and In Europe and America; physicians started using advanced techniques of abortion in the 17th century. In the 19th century, America and England outlawed abortion and various groups of Christians and physicians were largely significant in anti-abortion movements. However, in the commencement of the second half of the twentieth century, most countries made the act of abortion legal. Hall (27) stated that; â€Å"Prior to the decriminalization of abortion 75 % of the population favoured the liberalization of the existing law, 17% opposed and 8% were undecided†. Hence according to the above statistics, it is clear that the majority of people in America supported abortion unanimously and they thought carrying out abortion was right. The issue of abortion is still a social controversy in America in the 21st century although people have taken sides on that issue. For the last five decades t he two groups of determined activists in America have been expressing the own views on the issue of abortion. Those two groups recognize themselves as pro-life and pro-choice and looking at their different views, the pro-choice are proposing abortion while the pro-life group is strictly against the idea of abortion. Luker (61) stated that, â€Å" According to pro-choice groups such as Planned Parenthood, NARAL and Emily’s List, the choice to have an abortion should be made by the woman and her right to make that choice should not be infringed on by the government†. It implies that, pro-choice group propose the act of abortion and they feel that pregnant woman should be ones to choose whether to abort or

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Assignment 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Assignment 3 - Essay Example Averys work is the springboard for everything from recombinant DNA work to human cloning to cancer research. It has been used as a basis for other experiments that do not merely change the host genetic makeup, but actually replace one gene with another gene, and this process has even further widened the implication of Averys work. Drug resistant bacterial infections have been stemmed in part because of the processes used by Avery, in which injurious agents are introduced into the drug resistant strains, and these injurious changes are passed down through the progeny. The implications of this work for every aspect of life, from the environment to medicine to crop engineering is explored within the confines of this paper. The basis for the studies were previous studies that induced changes in higher organisms that were permanently embedded and passed on to next generations as hereditary characteristics. The first description of this phenomenon is by Griffith, who transformed variant that was non-encapsulated and attenuated into a fully encapsulated and virulent cells of another type (Avery, et al., 1943, p. 137). The present study deals with an attempt to determine the chemical nature of a substance that produces transformation of the pneumococcal types. This experiment, in which a DNA fraction, which is isolated from Type III pneumococci, transforms unencapsulated R variants, which are derivated from Pneumococcus Type II, into a fully encapsulated Type III cells, builds upon earlier studies that showed that changes induced into various pneumococcal types is determined by the encapsulated cells that are used to evoke the reaction (Avery, et al., 1943, p. 152). The researchers found it striking that variants from a Pneumococcus Type II are changed into Pneumococcus Type III cells by the addition of highly purified and protein-free material that consisted mainly of DNA. Also striking is that the capsular substance and the substance

Monday, August 26, 2019

Immigration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 6

Immigration - Essay Example Barring some religious differences between catholic and protestants, they were accepted more readily within the American society as against Chinese immigrants. The Irish and German immigrants in America were conspicuous in their attitude towards work. The German immigrants were endowed with more money and therefore sought land and work in farmland. There were also politically active and endorsed the ideology of democrats who believed in equality and in the welfare of the commoners. The Irish immigrants, on the other hand, were driven to America due to poverty and scarcity of opportunities in their motherland. Most of the were employed in labor intensive work like construction of road, canals, bridges etc. But both, German and Irish immigrants faced huge opposition because they threatened the livelihood of Americans in low paying jobs. Most importantly, German and Irish immigrants showed that America remained the most attractive place to realize one’s dream of prosperous and happy

Sunday, August 25, 2019

African tone languages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

African tone languages - Essay Example African tone languages But such an analysis is bound to lead to some difficult questions such as – Is music a form of language? What is the significance of this interrelationship?, etc. These questions will be answered in the following passages. Such aspects as â€Å"in-time performance†, reportorial and generic distinctions will also be scrutinized. The most substantive evidence for the relation between African music and language is to be found in the song lyrics. Let us take the example of Daniel Avorgbedor’s popular song â€Å"It’s a Great Song†. The song belongs to a unique African genre referred to as â€Å"war of insults and music†. Rival groups from different villages engage in a contest of wits and insult each other. Factuality is not as important as their artistic merit. Even if the verses contain falsehoods and unwarranted maledictions, they are overlooked. For a western student of music and culture, such a practice may seem odd or even base. But it is important to understand the role such a musical expression plays in the African cultural context. First of all, much innovation is required in composition to bring about the desired effect. The particular insults relating to irregular teeth, body topography, family ancestry, people’s personal sex lives, etc, may appear unseemly for someo ne not accustomed to such renditions. To truly appreciate such a style of music, one has to pay attention to the wide variety of literary devices used by the composers (who are also called Anlo-Ewe poets) (Agawu, 2001).

Saturday, August 24, 2019

How does joining the European Union affects a country's right to trade Essay

How does joining the European Union affects a country's right to trade - Essay Example Citizens of these countries are allowed to move freely hence able to provide there services in any of the member states without much restrictions. However, there are a number of legislations which impede trading between European Union members and non member states (Federation of American Scientists). There are requirements provided by EU which affects rights to trade for member states. For instance democracy should be upheld, stable institutions, respect for human rights and rule of law. The country must be able to cope with market forces and competition existing within the union. The union members are also to observe environmental issues before trading. Furthermore as a contribution to a sustainable environment, EU members have to observe certain guidelines before trading with other non member countries. If these countries do not meet the requirements then there will be no trading between the countries. In support of reduction in greenhouse gas emission EU ensures special tariff rates for countries that have ratified global environmental agreements (Europa). In addition there are a number of criteria which have to be observed by EU countries before issuing trading licenses to non member countries. These criteria to a greater extend impede trading. They include abiding by international commitments such as sanctions, respect for human rights and national security of nations etc. There have been efforts by the European Union to ensure that third countries develop democratic parliamentary institutions. Respect for fundamental rights and democratic principles are laid down as â€Å"essential element to all the agreements reached upon by the respective governments (European Commission). As much as these principles are essential in addressing pertinent issues in the society it hinders trade between nations. Member states from EU may shun from trading

Friday, August 23, 2019

Arch of Constantine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Arch of Constantine - Essay Example ch of Constantine is a beautiful example of a monument which has a tremendous history as well as a magnificent art in terms of sculptures and styles which decorate it. The Arch was created to commemorate the victory of Constantine over Maxentius at the battle of Milvian. The era when it was created places it in the Ancient Roman Corinthian style of art and as per the characteristics of the art of the era, the imagery used and the characters shown on the building are quite detailed (Strong, 1963). Strong (1963) also suggests that the detail level in such works of art is quite high and even though many centuries have taken their toll on the Arch, it is not difficult to imagine how it would look when it was first completed and shown to the public. Of particular interest are the sculptures and the messages which are placed on the arch itself. Dimensionally, the arch is about 20 meters in height and is roughly 25 meters in width. The distance covered by the arch is seven meters. There are three archways of which the middle one is the main archway with a height of 12 meters. The side arches are seven meters and are relatively smaller in width as well as height (Storage and Maish, 2007). It must be noted that as a work of art, the arch has certainly changed over time as things have been added, removed and renovated through history. For example, while there were eight yellow colored fluted Corinthian columns of Numidean marble originally, only seven of those remain today. The eighth original column was taken by Pope Clement VIII in 1597 and that is now in present day Laterano. This is certainly an irony in art since all the original columns are supposed to have been taken from a building of the Flavian era when the arch was first build (Storage and Maish, 2007). This can be seen as a case of vandalism conducted on a monument which was the result of vandalism conducted on other buildings. Therefore, instead of being a pure reflection of the building arts of the era,

Analyze companie in operation using analytical tools and strategy Assignment

Analyze companie in operation using analytical tools and strategy implementation (Apple ) - Assignment Example This is part of the risk management philosophy associated with their strategic expansion models. These licensing agreements are proactive protections that ensure no counterfeiting occurs and that the business’ software innovations are not duplicated by competition. Marketing is a major social issue for Apple as their reputation relies on positive consumer sentiment about the company and its products. The business uses marketing research to assist in identifying consumer knowledge about the firm and its products as part of proactive strategic leadership. A recent survey targeting teens in the United Kingdom identified that over 84 percent had already heard of the Apple iPhone and 25 percent would be willing to pay $500 for the device (Jones, 18). Marketing research is important when establishing strategic pricing structures for these products when considering the extent of the products’ life cycle on the consumer and business marketplaces. This is also part of management accounting systems in strategic development that â€Å"provide a monetary reflection of enterprise operations† (Clinton & Van der Merwe, 15). It helps the strategic leaders at Apple maintain control over costs and can assist in planning for new product development s based on consumer attitudes. Socially, Apple must consider the business’ reputation related to the buying behaviors and lifestyles of its target markets. Negative publicity is becoming more important and increases in frequency when trying to establish a brand presence in key markets (Dahlen & Lange, 388). This is part of the strategic governance process to ensure that proper public relations are maintained and that the products or the company image is not tarnished by its own actions or the interventions of third parties. Again, this is a risk management focus that might include hiring PR firms and developing a tracking system to

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Nope nope nope Essay Example for Free

Nope nope nope Essay Rhetorical Modes Quiz Complete the following chart to identify the purpose and structure of the various rhetorical modes used in academic writing. Provide at least two tips for writing each type of rhetorical device. Rhetorical modePurpose Explain when or why each rhetorical mode is used.Structure Explain what organizational method works best with each rhetorical mode. Tips Provide two tips for writing in each rhetorical mode. NarrationThe purpose of narration is to tell a story or recount an event.Used when one wants to tell an event by event account of a story, best organized in chronological order. Use only one tense. Always put important things first. IllustrationExplains a topic or statement with specific examples.Best used by order of importantence by arranging idea by their significance, Always starts with the topic sentence.Do not over detail your concepts. Use evidence that supports your topic sentence. DescriptionTo makes your audience fully immersed in the writing by using all 5 senses.It depends on the writer as discriptions can go from left to right or top to bottom.Spatial order is your friend. Don’t use discriptors that are empty. ClassificationUsed to break down broad subjects into smaller specific parts.Can be broken down into smaller categories for organization.Break down your topic 2-4 ways. Choose topics you’re well versed in. Process analysisUsed to explain how something works or is done right.Organized in order with step by step directions.Use clear examples. Have a friend read over it. DefinitionSimply put it’s to define something.Organized by settings or condition to how something goes or is explained. Comparison and contrast Cause and effect Persuasion Copyright  © 2011 by Flat World Knowledge. All rights reserved. Adapted with permission. Select one of the topics below and determine at least one rhetorical mode that would be appropriate for addressing the topic you selected. Write 100 to 150 words explaining the topic you selected, the rhetorical mode, and why you think this mode is most appropriate for addressing your topic. †¢Pollution †¢Workplace proposal for a new initiative †¢Arguing to change a law †¢Building a new park in your town †¢Climate change †¢Profile of your best friend or a family member

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Gaming and animation industry

Gaming and animation industry Animation Animation or 3D is a big innovation.We can understand animation from the Greek word animare which means to give life to something without. Animation is a series of still pictures that are shown in rapid succession creates the illusion of movement because of persistence of vision, this means the image stays on the retina a fraction of a second longer. If we see many images (24 a sec) they will all link up. There are different types of animation computer games use animation for games such as tomb raider and frogger, the characters and settings are all animated. Cell animation is the process of taking a sequence of images and stringing them together to create movement. It is an old process that is still used today to create animation for cinema, television, and computers. An example of cell animation is in programmes such as superman. Cut out animation is a technique that is quicker than cel. Parts of the body of an animal or person are cut out and coloured, then assembled and reassembl ed into different positions instead of being drawn over and over again. Animation has developed a lot since the 1900s, the first animated feature film was made by Cohl and George Melies that was made in 1918. Indias, gaming, industry, $860, million, and, animation, industry, $1bn, 2012. Indias gaming and animation industrys are the 2 industries which are going at a fast rate. The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) predicted for animation industry is 22%. For gaming industry it is 53% NASSCOM, animation industry is a $494 million industry in 2008 and at the CAGR of 22% it will be $1bn industry. These are revised estimates where the growth estimates are cut. The global CAGR is estimated to be 10% much lesser than Indias own CAGR. Animation globally will be a $100 bn industry (it is $68 bn in 2008) Key segments in Animation: o Entertainment animation, o Animation education, o Custom content development and o multimedia/web design and VFX o Gaming on the other hand The segments are split as shown below : animation-nasscom Gaming is the fastest growing among the two and probably the fastest growing industry in India. It is $167 million industry in 2008. With an estimated CAGR of 53% it will be $830 million in 2012. Globally it is $21 billion in 2008 and will grow to $53.6 billion in 2012. Key segments in gaming: o Online games, o Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), o Casual, o Mobile games, o PC games o Console games, o Regular and Handheld The segments are split as shown below : gaming-nasscom NASSCOM revised its 2012 forecast for animation industry from USD 1060 million to 830 million and gaming industry from USD 1163 million to 1000 million. Some of the factors which accounted for the revision were the global economic downturn, domestic box office for animation movies not picking up as estimated, End to end skill sets not being developed in the animation services industry. Animation industry in India India is emerging as an outsourcing hub for animation and visual effects with large number of international media companies entering into joint ventures with animation studios in India. The Animation Industry in India though a late starter, is considered as one of the fastest growing segments of the entertainment and media industry. The Animation Industry in India gained significance as an outsourced destination for animation work due to low cost, skilled labour as its many advantages. In the recent past Indian animation companies and animation studios have been moving up the value chain to create their own intellectual property rights with Hanuman, Roadside Romeo, etc. and partnering with international studios to produce animated properties for the global audience.Though a majority of the work done by the animation industry in India is outsourced work, this is expected to change in the future with increased demand from the domestic entertainment industry. The Indian animation industry in 2007 was estimated at USD 0.31 billion and is expected to grow at CAGR 24% to reach USD 0.94 billion by 2012. The Indian animation industry in 2007 was estimated at USD 0.31 billion and is expected to grow at CAGR 24% to reach USD 0.94 billion by 2012. Indian animation industry including market size, growth and key segments. Analysis of drivers reveals that growing demand for animated content in the domestic market, cost arbitrage opportunity in India, improving animation education and increasing character licensing business have helped growth of this sector in India. The key challenges identified include high set-up and production cost, talent shortage and lack of protection of intellectual property. The future trends identified include increasing animation application in other sectors, domestic animation movies earning revenues through international releases and increase in investments and realizations for animated movies in India. Market size and growth rate of animation industry With global players like Walt Disney, Imax, Warner Bros signing contracts with Indian animation companies for outsourcing and co-production, it is expected that the animation industry in India can touch $950 million by 2009 and is expected to grow at a fast pace over the next five years. However, outside the Industry there is scepticism about the pace of growth because of the challenges like piracy, lack of intellectual property (IP) protection rights, acute lack of resources and investments the Industry is facing. In an interaction with Business Standard, KPMG Advisory Services (P) Ltd Director Jaiddep Ghosh said, Although India is the largest media consuming market in the world, only 1 per cent of the US market size which is estimated at $10 billion, so far the animation is concerned, it is currently pegged at $600 million. Commenting upon the industry market size, he said, The Indian market size is extremely fragmented with the top players accounting for 10-15 per cent of the industry turnover. Further, most of the players are direct or indirect off-shoots of the Indian BPO boom. This legacy and low indigenous demand forced most of the players to adopt the outsourcing business model. Prominent players include Toonz Animation, Crest Communication, Maya Entertainment, UTV Toons, Zee, etc. Also, Pritish Nandy Communication has plans for five full-length 3-D animated bollywood films and has signed a $25-million deal with Florida-based animation company Motion Pixel Corporation. Crest Animations has entered into a three-movie co-production agreement with Lions Gate, a major movie studio. Also, animation studio DQ Entertainment has made a pact with US-based Electronic Arts to work on PC games. With these developments, it seems that things will change dramatically in the near future. Further, Walt Disney, Imax, Warner Bros are signing contracts with Indian Animation companies for outsourcing and co-production. Animation needs a much larger investment and longer production circles. However, it has very long shelf lives and content leverage scope. A typical animation movie may take 2 years for completion unlike general movies. Further it is labour intensive, although with the advent of computers, the work has been simplified and is a relief from the days when each frame had to be drawn by hand. It is estimated that the labour may account for 70-80 per cent of the total costs for a 2-D animation production. It is lower for 3-D animation. Further, animation products are expensive to produce, on an average animation costs 5-15 times more than a live product. The key challenges before the industry are piracy and lack of IP protection rights and an acute lack of resources, investment and government support. The slack IP laws and weak enforcement mean that studios can expect leakage of revenue at every stage. Indian animation industry poised for growth Right now, about 300,000 students are undergoing training in animation technology across India. Most of the professionals are still at the entry level, The way the industry is growing, even these 300,000 professionals will not be enough to handle the work load in the coming years. Good times ahead for Animation Industry apirants as Hanuman, Hanuman Returns and now Bal Ganesh the string of successful animation movies is an indication of the fast growth that the Indian animation industry is poised for after the development of some very advanced software. As far as the Indian animation movie production is concerned, a new phase has now started after advanced software has been developed. Technology is key to the growth of the animation sector. India has about 200 animation, 40 VFX and 35 game development studios, but the country needs more workstations to make optimal use of the potential that the industry has. we get trainers from the US and Canada to train our staff and help them understand the current trends in animation in the world market. This ensures that the output is on a par with the acceptable levels for international standards, especially Hollywood.Animation movie making will soon emerge as a self-sufficient industry and attain a full-ledged stature. The Indian animation movie production, however, had a rather shaky start. In 1984, when the renowned artiste Ram Mohan wanted to make an animation movie on the Indian epic Ramayana in collaboration with the Japanese filmmaker Yogo Sako. The movie, Ramayan, executed under Mohans leadership, created a revolution in the international market in that it made the Western world aware for the first time of talent available in India to make animation movies. India saw an outsourcing boom subsequently. But, due to the high cost involved, together with shortage of manpower and technology, animation movie making stagnated after Ramayan was released. Some of them did create story-based animated work, but those were meant only for the advertising commercials. It was only since 2000 that corporate houses set their sights on producing animation movies. UTV was the first corporate entity to plan animated versions of India Book Houses popular Amar Chitra Katha series in the 1990s. But the project did not get off the ground. A decade later Percept Picture Company (PPC) brought to India its Hanuman series of animation features Hanuman and Hanuman Returns. At a one-day conference on animation and gaming in Chandgarh recently, Punit Vatsayan, managing director of Mobera Systems Pvt. Ltd., said the Indian animation and gaming industry is projected to reach the $1 billion mark by 2010 from the current combined revenues of $402 million. Navin Gupta, chief operating officer of the Maya Academy of Advanced Cinematics (MAAC), a Mumbai-based animation training institute, said the Indian animation industry is still hard-pressed for skilled manpower. Made on a budget of about Rs.15 million, PPCs first animation movie Hanuman went on to earn Rs.70 million for the corporate entity. PPC followed it up with Hanuman Returns. Shemaroo in another Indian company that feels animation is good business. It has set up its own animation studio to create animation movies in-house. Though Shemaroos maiden animation attempt, Bal Ganesh, did not see the success of PPCs Hanuman and Hanuman Returns, it scored in terms of quality. Animation movie can be made here 15 times cheaper than the cost of a Hollywood production. Supply chain governance and outsourcing in animation As a result of all the potential of the animation market, the governance of animation production (i.e., where decisions on the supply chain) is dictated by the institutions which control whether content is produced and how it is distributed. Increasingly, these two aspects are connected. In the US, the distribution of animation is essentially controlled by the large TV channels such as the Fox Network, the specialized channels such as Nickleodeon and Cartoon Network, the larger distributor/studios or other content providers such as Disney. It is only when a production studio gets large and well-known enough that it can effectively dictate its own future. Since most animation series are carried by TV studios, and since these studios may be in the broadcasting rather than production business, they rely heavily on contracting with creative talent of outside production studios. Specialized animation channels, and previously Fox, usually keep some internal pre-production and postproduction operations, and sometimes even hold onto the production internally. That is, they have their own creative talent, either for developing animation in-house, or for spotting or identifying concepts in the conceptualization and preproduction phase, which are then â€Å"outsourced† to animation studios.Post-production is often done in-house as well since it is really a follow-up stage that ensures that production meets the preproduction specifications. In contrast, the recent 3D movies have largely not been outsourced. The reasons for this will follow as we examine the creative production process for Pixar in more detail. Unlike animation, the film industry has outsourced their computer graphics (CG) effects for the most part. This is partly because of the flexibly specialized nature of film production, which allows outsourcing, and partly because of the fact that the film industry has traditionally been dependent only on physical assets such as actors and locations. Increasingly, however, computer graphics effects are becoming more and more useful in film, blurring the line between film and CG or CGI animation. No where was this more evident than in the Lord of the Rings trilogy: All three movies used CG effects extensively for the main battle scenes, redefining the notion of what assets are needed for epic scenes or to define a movie. Supply chain governance and outsourcing in animation As a result of all the potential of the animation market, the governance of animation production (i.e., where decisions on the supply chain) is dictated by the institutions which control whether content is produced and how it is distributed. Increasingly, these two aspects are connected. In the US, the distribution of animation is essentially controlled by the large TV channels such as the Fox Network, the specialized channels such as Nickleodeon and Cartoon Network, the larger distributor/studios or other content providers such as Disney. It is only when a production studio gets large and well-known enough that it can effectively dictate its own future. Since most animation series are carried by TV studios, and since these studios may be in the broadcasting rather than production business, they rely heavily on contracting with creative talent of outside production studios. Specialized animation channels, and previously Fox, usually keep some internal pre-production and postproduction operations, and sometimes even hold onto the production internally. That is, they have their own creative talent, either for developing animation in-house, or for spotting or identifying concepts in the conceptualization and preproduction phase, which are then â€Å"outsourced† to animation studios.Post-production is often done in-house as well since it is really a follow-up stage that ensures that production meets the preproduction specifications. In contrast, the recent 3D movies have largely not been outsourced. The reasons for this will follow as we examine the creative production process for Pixar in more detail. Unlike animation, the film industry has outsourced their computer graphics (CG) effects for the most part. This is partly because of the flexibly specialized nature of film production, which allows outsourcing, and partly because of the fact that the film industry has traditionally been dependent only on physical assets such as actors and locations. Increasingly, however, computer graphics effects are becoming more and more useful in film, blurring the line between film and CG or CGI animation. No where was this more evident than in the Lord of the Rings trilogy: All three movies used CG effects extensively for the main battle scenes, redefining the notion of what assets are needed for epic scenes or to define a movie. Indias Advantages in the Animation Industry Indias attractiveness as an animation hub lies in the presence of an English-speaking workforce, high-quality software engineers, a large pool of creative talent, good studios and low costs. The cost of producing a 30-minute 3D animation programme in India is US$60,000 compared to US$250,000-400,000 in the United States and Canada. India has a cost advantage compared to the Philippines, which is another low cost producer of animations. The average monthly salary of an animation professional in India is US$600 compared to US$1,000-US$1,200 in the Philippines. The cost of outsourcing one hour of animation work to India is estimated to be 30% to 40% of the corresponding costs in leading animation centres in Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. Indias advantages in low costs have been exploited by many multinational firms and production studios. The advent of digital animation coincided with the liberalization of the Indian economy and India offered the benefits of lower production costs, strong creative and technical skills and a large English speaking population. This has led to the development of state of the art animation studios in several Indian cities, and these studios are collaborating with global entertainment companies. Main characteristics of animation Animations for Education Educators are enthusiastically taking up the opportunities that computer animation offers for depicting dynamic content. For example, PowerPoint now has an easy-to-use animation facility that, in the right hands, can produce very effective educational animations. Because animations can explicitly depict changes over time, they seem ideally suited to the teaching of processes and procedures. When used to present dynamic content, animations can mirror both the changes in position (translation), and the changes in form (transformation) that are fundamental to learning this type of subject matter. In contrast with static pictures, animations can show temporal change directly (rather than having to indicate it indirectly using auxiliary markings such as arrows and motion lines). Using animations instead of static graphics removes the need for these added markings so that displays can be not only simpler and less cluttered, but also more vivid, engaging, and more intuitively comprehended. In addition, the learner does not have to interpret the auxiliary markings and try to infer the changes that they summarise. Such interpretation and inference may demand a level of graphicacy skills that the learner does not possess. With animated depictions, information about the changes involved is available to be read straight from the display without the learner needing to perform mental animation. Animations Facilitate Learning It seems that animations should be ideal for presenting dynamic content. However, research evidence about the educational effectiveness of animations is mixed. Various investigations have compared the educational effectiveness of static and animated displays across a number of content domains. While there have been some findings that show positive effects of animations on learning, other studies have found no effects or even negative effects. In general, it can be concluded that animations are not intrinsically more effective than static graphics. Rather, the particular characteristics of individual animations and how they are used play a key role in the effects that they have on learning. Animations Make Learning Faster Well-designed animations may help students learn faster and easier. They are also excellent aid to teachers when it comes to explaining difficult subjects. The difficulty of subjects may arise due to the involvement of mathematics or imagination. For instance, the flow$ of electric current is invisible. The operation of electric circuits is difficult for students to understand at the beginning. With the aid of computer animations, learning and teaching might become easier, faster and amusing. Educational Effectiveness It seems that when the subject matter is complex, learners may be overwhelmed by animated presentations. This is related to the role of visual perception and cognition in human information processing. Our human perceptual and cognitive systems have limited capacities for processing information. If these limits are exceeded when using an animation, learning may be compromised. For example, the pace at which the animation presents its information may exceed the speed at which the learner can process it effectively. Youll probably find it quite demanding to work out exactly whats happening in the accompanying animation (part of a pumping system) for this reason. But the solution is obvious: slow the animation down and accompany it with a written explanation. It is unlikely that superior learning is achieved by thoughtlessly substituting animation for a static graphic but by having it accompany textual explication. Another suggestion for addressing such problems is to provide user contro l for the learner over how the animation plays. User controllable animations allow learners to vary aspects such as the playing speed and direction, labels and audio commentary to suit themselves. Perceptual Salience versus Thematic Relevance Complexity of the subject matter may not be the only reason for difficulties that learners sometimes have with animations. It seems that problems can also arise from the perceptual effects of such presentations. In a poorly designed animation, the information that learners notice most readily in the animation may not be the information that is of greatest importance. Conversely, information that is relatively inconspicuous may be very important. You can see an example of this in the top right hand corner of the accompanying animation. Tucked away here is a small grey-coloured valve whose subtle movement lets air into this pumping system (which is where the bubbles come from). However, its nowhere near as noticeable as the big, more central, orange-coloured valve that is going up and down so obviously. The point is that animations should not appear in a vacuum and most will require accompanying explanation. Obviously, perceptibility of information does not necessarily correspond with its actual relevance to the learning task to be performed. Features of the animated display that are most conspicuous because of their contrast with the rest of the display are not always the best place for learners to direct their attention. In other words, there can be a poor correspondence between the perceptual salience (noticeability) of a feature and its thematic relevance, and an accompanying text is needed to correct this. The Top Ten Animation Companies in India 1. Toonz Animation India, is based in Thiruvananthapuram and has to its credit the successful series â€Å"The Adventures of Tenali Raman†. The team here is also working on a full-fledged feature film called Tommy and Oscar which is a 2D /3D combo project. This is apart from completing work for the Italian producer Rainbow Productions; a 2D television series called Will o the Wisp (26 X 6 min) for Animoon Plc, United Kingdom and a big-budget 3D television series for major a US broadcaster. This company has tied up with First Serve International to form First Serve Toonz. 2. Pentamedia Graphics, Chennai is a subsidiary of computer software company Pentafour. It is best known for its animated 3D film using the â€Å"motion capture† technique, Sindbad: Beyond the Veils of the Mists. 3. Maya Entertainment, Mumbai has been doing outsourced work for a while now and has done the special effects for The Mummy and Stuart Little. It is also working on animating short films starring a character called Wabo, to be used by the United Nations to educate worldwide audiences on the importance of fresh drinking water. 4. UTV Toonz, Mumbai is the animation division of UTV Software Communications and is one of the top ranking studios dealing in flash as well as traditional animation. It has bagged a US$10 billion deal with an American company for outsourced work. Other assignments for international clients include like two Dutch deals to produce a musical cartoon series called â€Å"ClubNow!† and a fantasy series â€Å"The Donz†; a project with Cinegroup of Canada for the images for a sci-fi series. They are also working with companies in Scotland and Luxembourg for the development of series like â€Å"Clootie Dumpling† and â€Å"Snow Queen†. It will also be working on â€Å"Kong: The Next Generation† for New York-based BKN New Media. 5. Heart Entertainment, a 2D animation studio is yet another big name in the animation sphere, which is doing a lot of outsourced work. Among the animation featured in its portfolio are Warner Brothers Histeria, Tommy Nelsons Crippled Lamb and Little Dogs on the Prairie. It also has to its credit some work done for Walt Disney. 6. Padmalaya Telefilms, Mumbai is a unit of Indias largest listed media firm, Zee Telefilms. It is expected to make 104 cartoon episodes for US$ 14 million and distribute Mondos library for US$ 15 million. It has also inked some deals with British animation companies like Mallard Media and Ealing Animation. 7. Nipuna Services Ltd, a division of Satyam Computer Services, has recently bagged a project worth US$ 8 billion from 4K Animation GmbH, a German animation company. This assignment is among the biggest deals struck by an Indian BPO in the animation space. It is also doing significant work for a New Zealand based company called Applied Gravity. The work includes animatronics models for New Zealand Theme parks as well as an animatronics dog for Animal Planets series K9 to 11. 8. 8. Jadoo Works, Bangalore is working on an animated film series Lord Krishna and the crime caper Bombay Dogs. It has done work for US animation studios like Wild Brain and Guardian Angel Animation (GaGa). 9. Crest Communications, Mumbai, is a leading 3-d animation company and does a lot of work for American Studios. It came into limelight in 2002, when it won an Emmy for animation production work done for the animated series â€Å"Jakers: The Adventures of Piggley-Winks†. It is also to work on three features for Lions Gate Family Entertainment. Crest is also expected to produce and release â€Å"Sylvester and the Magic Pebble† based on the story by William Steig the creator of †Shrek†. 10. 10. Silvertoon Studio, Mumbai, is engaged primarily in subcontract work for U.S., French, and British studios, using digital ink, paint and compositing system. Challenges to Growth of Indias Animation Industry While it is true that Indias animation industry is growing at a remarkable pace, the fact remains that this growth is largely a result of the mushrooming of â€Å"studios-for-hire.† In animation feature films, for example, while Indian companies carry out the animation work, most of the writing, character design, and storyboarding are done abroad. India is yet to become a successful player in concept creation, the high value-adding segment of the industry which remains a preserve of western firms. Indias advantages of low costs in this industry will be too short-lived, and sooner rather than later, the country will have to start developing its own intellectual property. There are several challenges faced by the Indian animation industry. Lack of Finance Indian animation firms cannot match their western counterparts in financial strength. It is pointed out that state support in the form of tax holidays is crucial for success in the animation business. Canada, for example, offers major incentives to its studios for developing animation products. However, financial institutions in India have not been much forthcoming in funding projects in animation and interactive media. The long gestation period before fruition of projects discourages potential investors. This can be a major hurdle, and it has, in fact, led to the stoppage of a few production ventures. For example, Jadooworks had to stop production of animated epic of Krishna due to technical problems and lack of funding. The firm was supposedly on the verge of bankruptcy and this has led to the retrenchment of about Interestingly, Jadooworks is the same firm which drew appreciation from 250 workers.Thomas Friedman in an article in February 2004 for employing traditional artistes and transforming their skills to computerised digital painting he was arguing that globalisation can have beneficial impact on traditional artists. The experience of Jadooworks underlines the fact that it is still too ambitious for Indian companies to single-handedly enter into animation projects. Even a small project in the animation industry entails a budget of US$30 million, which is not affordable for Indian firms. International Attention Tata Elxsi Visual Computing Labs (VCL) in India tied up with Prologue Films in the United States to design the computer generated graphics for display at the academy awards in March 2004. This fact is not very well known. What this highlights is another challenge faced by the Indian animation industry attention at the national and international level. While Indian animation companies do contract work for western firms, the entire credit, including ownership of copyrights, for the work goes to the western firm. Paucity of Physical and Legal Infrastructure As per the recommendations by a NASSCOM study, improvement of animation studios and better training for Indian animators are important for Indias long term success in the animation industry. India should develop an organized animation sector and also frame suitable laws and copyright rules. The infrastructural facilities have to be improved to attract more foreign investment and to enhance the efficiency of the industry. Also more emphasis has to be placed on the domestic industry as the domestic demand for animation in the entertainment; gaming and computer sectors are expected to grow multifold. Need For Training There are no academic institutes like Indian Institutes of Technology, Regional Engineering Colleges, Polytechnics, etc., churning out animators by the thousands. What we have are only fine arts schools which teach the fundamentals but not the technical skills required for production, points out K. Chandrasekhar, General Manager, Media Works, Tata Elxsi. According to him, this is a major drawback for the industry in India. Education in new media has to be embedded into the mainstream curriculum. Students have to realise that they can have a lucrative career as animators, and the government as well as educational institutions have to start programmes for their career development. The animation sector will benefit greatly by giving encouragement to the community of traditional artists as much as to technically trained professionals. In other words, integration of the rural and urban talent will prove highly beneficial. Also, NASSCOMs President Kiran Karnik believes that there is a need for an animation academy to build a steady inflow of animation professionals in the industry. NASSCOM extended its help to the government for framing the curriculum and also w

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Features of spoken English

Features of spoken English Task 2 Spoken discourse It is broadly accepted that spoken English has some features different from written English. Some scholars have generalized these characteristics. For example, Leech (2000) has put forward linguistic characteristics of the grammar of spoken English. Cornbleet and Carter (2001) also analysed certain features of spoken English. With the examples from the provided text1 and text2, some of these characteristics can be found and examined. Leech mentions one of the characteristics of the spoken language grammar: the use of personal pronouns which appears in both the two texts. Within the first text there are the first person I and the third person he frequently used; whereas the frequent pronouns are the first person I and the second person you in text 2. The use of substitutes and ellipsis also embody in the texts. In text1 line4 and line6, he can be viewed as a substitute of Doc Timm. Example of ellipsis can be found in text1 as well: in line 7 and I always remember putting that ether on me, the sender of giving the action of putting ether in the clause is omitted. Same ellipsis occurs in the next line. The sixth characteristic given by Leech, vague meaning can be seen in text2. Like that in line5 and line7 and that bit in line12 are rather vague expressions. Yet the lack of variety in word choice and the use of questions and imperatives are both distinct characteristics of spoken English. For example, in text1 the speaker uses took twice, putting and put respectively once. Text2 seems to be more obviously lacking the word variety: loop three times, twist twice, pull three times, which are frequently used and repeated with few alternatives. As for the imperatives and questions, many examples can be found in text2 as well. The speaker C keeps asking questions like That one?, Twist it? and so on, while speaker R answers with many operatives, for instance, line2, Then make it smaller in line6, Do a loop in line11, And then put your fingers out in line14. The eleventh one indicates that the discourse markers, response forms, and greetings are used in spoken English. As Cornbleet and Carter (2001) say discourse markers mark the beginning of a turn and the end of it (p.65). From text1, we can find that the speaker begins his monologue by a discourse marker So. A response form Yeah, thats it in line6 can be found. Subordinates, modals, adverbs are frequently used in spoken English. This characteristic is echoed by the examples from text. In line1 text1, who is in the clause as a subordinator. A lot of adverbs can be found in text2 as well. And then occurs all together seven times. Others include there in line4, just in line2. Hesitation, pauses, fillers and repeats are also common in spoken English. Pauses seem to be frequent in text2. In line2, there are two pauses. And others appear in line4, line6, line7, and line11. In line6 text2, Then make it smaller by pulling the stringby putting your fingers like that seems contain a hesitation between by pulling the string and by putting your fingers. From Cornbleet and Carters view, spoken English has a common feature that is deixis, which is used to orient the conversation and the listener (2001). The speaker C from the txet2 is trying to make sure his operation is right before move on through like that in line5 and line13 while this phrase would make a different sense outside this context. In text1, there is deixis as well. That ether appears in line7 and line9 specifying the unique item to the speaker. What is more, Cornbleet and Carter say that back-channelling signs in conversation indicate speakers attention. In the text2, Speaker C asks short questions in line5, line7 and line10 to ask for speaker Rs clarification and explanation. In spoken English, incomplete clauses and simple clauses are frequently used. Simple clauses such as I always remember in text1 and so its like crossed in text2 are commonly seen. Meanwhile, an incomplete clause so its can be found in line2 of text2. Task 4 Grammar The analysis is problematic in the eighth sentence which can be divided differently by two means. The difference lies in how to deal with the preposition phrase at the next full moon. It can be divided into the previous clause, or be divided as a separate adverbial. The meanings are subtle: for the former, we might start waiting and looking forward from now; but for the latter, it means that we may just start waiting for something to happen at that certain time, the next full moon. In a traditional EFL grammar, verbs are examined and discussed a lot. Swan (1995 p. 606) claims that different verbs can be followed by different kinds of word and structure. Some structures can be found in those given sentences. For example, some verbs can be followed by other verb structures. Jack seems to have been killed in sentence 5 embodies that structure: the first verb seem does not show the subject Jack does, while the following verb infinitive gives the real information. About the passive voice, sentence 2, 3 and 5 can be used as examples. Moreover, the first sentence is a good example of showing the relation of apposition which is common between two noun phrases in which David Kessler and Jack Goodman is the appositive. And within sentence 7, a relative clause that attacked them is embedded in the first simple sentence of this compound sentence. According to Hopper, there is a tendency of verbal dispersal in discourse grammar. One of the expanded verb expressions in English formulation is like this: one of a small set of common verbs with a noun denoting an action (1997 p. 97). Makes a terrifying visit in sentence 6 can fit this, containing a common verb make with a noun visit illustrating the action. There is also a preference for extended verbal expression (Hopper, 1997). For example, are backpacking around in sentence1 and seems to have been killed in sentence 5, may fall prey to in sentence 7. In those eight sentences few have solitary verbs, except sentence4 containing a single verb sees following the inanimate subject morning seemingly de-personalized. Jackson values the notion pattern which is important to our conception of grammar and especially when we consider the syntactic cooperation of individual words (Jackson, 2003 p. 156). According to Hunston and Francis, a pattern is description of the behavior of a lexical item, or one of the behaviours of that item, as evidenced in a record of large amounts of language use ( Jackson, 2003 p. 156, reprinted from Pattern Grammar: A corpus-Driven Approach to the Lexical Grammar of English (2000) ). There are two aspects which pattern grammar explores: each different syntactic structure of a word is associated with a different meaning; and words with similar syntactic structures tend to have related meanings. With regard to the first aspect, examples can be found in the given sentences. In sentence 2, the first welcoming appears in a preposition phrase followed by Yorkshire inn which is a place name; whereas the second one is followed by locals referring a group of people. Within different syntactic structure, their meanings differ: the first welcoming means not friendly to someone who is visiting or arriving, yet the second one means unattractive and discomfortable to be somewhere. Thus their slight difference can be seen. Similarly, another example, sees in sentence 4 is used after an inanimate subject of time morning and before an object modified by a preposition phrase which indicates a event; see in sentence 8 appears in a verb phrase after wait and before a nominal clause which indicates something in future. Their meaning difference also exits: the first sees means to be the time when something happens while the second see referring to figuring out something by waiting. Task 6 Lexis According to Lewis, a collocation is a predictable combination of words and he judges that some combinations may be very highly predictable from one of the component words (2000 p. 51). Moreover, as he mentions that all collocations are idiomatic and all phrasal verbs and idioms are collocations or contain collocations (2000 p. 51). Some examples from the given text can support his view to a large extent. In line 1, the collocation at the age of twelve is an example. People can easily tell which kind of words should be after of, because it is predictable as the existed rest parts, especially the noun age. Some place names as set combinations are highly predictable. For instance, Gold Gate Park in line 12 and Speckels Lake in line 11 and San Francisco in line 16 are predictable particularly to those local people who are familiar with the places. To most people, it is also easy to predict one of the collocation willow tree and park bench in line 19. Many other collocations are viewed so common that they hardly seem worth remarking upon (Lewis, 2000 p. 51). A lot of common collocations can be found in the given text, like look back in line 6, a pair of eyes in line16, look(ed) up in line 21, early-afternoon sun in line 12. These common collocations are abundant in peoples daily speaking and are regarded as natural combination or gathering. According to Lewiss suggestive way, collocations basically can be divided into several types, many of which can be seen in the text: adjctive+noun, like a frigid overcast day in line 1; noun+noun, for instance, willow tree in line 19; verb+adjective+noun, like remember the precise moment; verb+adverb, like look back in line 6; verb+preposition+noun, like propelled by a crisp breeze in line 13. With regard to metaphor, it is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain in the cognitive view (K?vecses, 2007 p. 4). The two domains are known as the source domain and the target domain. Knowles and Moon give us the definition which examines the language use of resemblance or make a connection between the literary meaning and its figurative meaning (2006 p. 3). As an excerpt from a literature work, this text contains several metaphors. For instance, Because the past claws its way out. in line 6 falls into the category of metaphor. The writer compares his past to an animal, endowing his past experience and memory some characteristics of living creature so that them can claw its way out which they originally cannot. In line 14, red with long blue tails, soaring in the sky is also a metaphor. The writer compares the kites to certain animals perhaps birds so that it has tails and can soar. The next long sentence is full of metaphors. In They danced, he compares the kites to human beings enabling them to dance which is traditionally used for human. Floating side by side like a pair of eyes looking down on San Francisco also contains metaphors. Here looking down indicates that the writer compares the kite to a living creature with eyes so that they would be able to looking down. From a holistic view, it is natural to conclude that the metaphors i n this excerpt tend to associate the kite(s) with the domain of living things. Sinclair illustrates the idiom principle as language user has available to him or her a large number of semi-preconstructed phrases that constitute single choices, even though they might appear to be analysable into segments (1991 p. 111). He also shows that it is complementary to the open-choice model for explaining how meaning arises from language. Many phrases allow internal lexical variation is one of the features of the idiom principle according to Sinclair (1991 p. 111). Examples from the given text can be found. glanced up in line13 and looked up in line21 seem to be close both in form and meaning with little space to choose between them. There is also little to choose between I became what I am today in line1 and the phrase made me what I am today in line23. Another feature of the idiom principle is many uses of words and phrases attract other words in strong collocation (Sinclair, 1991 p. 112); for instance, look back in line6, look down in line16, and look up in line 21 show that look has this feature. And repeated appearance of a pair of:a pair of kites in line14 together with a pair of eyes in line16, demonstrates this phrase also has this feature. What is more, according to Sinclair (1991 p.112) many uses of words and phrases show a tendency to occur in a certain semantic environment. For example, the phrase peek into is often associated with some secret scenes and in this text it does connected with this scene the alley near the frozen creek or the deserted alley where something miserable happens. Task 7 Register and genre It is generally believed that variation based on the use of language and variation based on the user of language are two main types of language variations (Gregory 1967, cited in Ghadessy 1994 p. 288). Register, to be exact, here stands for the variation based on the use of language (Ghadessy, 1994 p. 288). Halliday (1978, cited in Ghadessy 1994 p. 288) terms register with three variables known as field, mode and tenor: Types of linguistic situation differ from one another, broadly speaking, in three respects: first, as regards what actually is taking place; secondly, as regards what part the language is playing; and thirdly, as regards who is taking part. These three variables, taken together, determine the range within which meanings are selected and the forms which are used for their expression. In other words, they determine the register. Painter describes that the field can be seen as the cultural activity or subject matter with which the speaker/writers are concerned (2001 p. 173). The given text concerns introducing and crucially promoting selling a town house which is non-technical. This field to a great extent determines the used vocabulary and some grammatical features of the language. The text producer needs to persuade his potential customers to buy the house therefore a friendly and unbiased manner is popular and demanded. The inanimate subject sentences are used throughout the whole text, together with short phrases like marked by and Cricketers Green, Yeadon. In this way, the text producer seems to be objective in his persuasion; meanwhile language is concise and clear with those short phrases. Certainly, many house related words are used in this text, like vestibule, kitchen, garden and parking place. Tenor refers to the social relations between the interactions in any discourse (Painter, 2001 p.174), which determines the level of formality and the level of technicality of the language to a great extent. In terms of the tenor, the given text involves the advertisement producer/marketing person and his potential customers; they are in a relationship of persuading and to be persuaded. His language is not casual but formal. It can be seen from the imperative mood Phone the agent which seems commanding and cold. This is relatively formal because their social distance is not short: the advertisement producer who has already known most information about the house whereas readers have not. The marketing person needs to inform and persuade others who have not the same common share with him. Meanwhile, there are almost no technical words within the text which can cause barriers in readers understanding as most are common words. Mode is deemed as the medium of communication, in particular whether it is spoken or written, which will have far-reaching effects on the language used (Painter 2001 p. 175). Obviously, the mode of this given print text is written not spoken. The use of inanimate subjects in sentences, like The accommodation incorporates a number of attributes, is a feature of written language. According to Allison, genre which traditionally serves to indicate different kinds of literary and artistic works has been introduced and expanded to identify classes of language use and communication in all areas of life (1999 p. 144). Swales (1990) put forward some important features of examples of genres; some of them are worth mentioning here. For instance, the given text belongs to the category of advertisement in terms of specific name for genre. The purpose of the text can be identified as informing and prompting a sale of the house to potential customers. It is connected with certain discourse community, here referring to the community of people who are looking for a property. Bhatia (1998) advances seven moves within a structure used by writers for product promotion in business settings. Further, he develops a specific move structure in advertisements (2007). A series of the feature structure moves can be found within this text. Although it is short, the schematic structure of this text is clear and straightforward to readers. A striking headline which specifies the name, location and price of the house to be sold in bold tells makes people notice it is relevant with estate sales; a companied photo demonstrating the appearance of the house can be seen as a move of offering product, moreover, the eye-catching photo may also stimulate readers to read more or even consider to buy; the following part seems equivalent to soliciting response which lists the marketing person and the contact details including the agent phone number in strikingly bold which is necessary for getting potential customers response as well as for the advertisement producer to achieve h is final goal to sell the house; the last part, product details as well as the positive evaluation, which contains the detailed introduction of the house is for readers consideration thus can be regarded as essential detailing and indicating values of the offer in introducing the offer phase. References ALLISON, D. 1999. Genre, ELT Journal, vol. 53 no 2, pp 144. Bhatia, V. K. 1998. Analysing Genre: language use in professional setting, London New York: Longman Bhatia, V. K. 2007. Words of Written Discourse, London: Continuum. Cornbleet, S. R. Carter. 2001. The Language of Speech and Writing. London: Routledge. Ghadessy, M. 1994. Key concepts in ELT: Register, ELT Journal, vol. 48 no 3, pp 288-289. HOPPER, P. J. Discourse and the category verb in English. Language and Communication, vol.17 no 2, pp 93-102. Jackson, H. 2002. Grammar and Vocabulary: a resource book for students. London New York: Routledge. Knowles, M. R. Moon. 2006. Introducing Metaphor. London New York: Routledge. K?vecses, Z. 2002. Metaphor: a practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. LEECH, G. 2000. Grammar of Spoken English: New outcomes of Corpus-Oriented Research. Language Learning, vol.50 no 4, pp 675-724. Lewis, M. ed. 2000. Teaching Collocation: Further Development in the lexical approach, Hove : Thomson Heinle Language Teaching Publications. Painter, C. 2001. Understanding Genre and Register: Implications for Language Teaching in A. Burns and C. Coffin (Eds), Analysing English in a Global Context: a reader (167-179). London: Routledge. Sinclair, J. 1991. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Swales, J. 1990. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Swan, M. 1995. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Monday, August 19, 2019

only the heart :: essays research papers

And only the prisoner knows The dream of freedom on his tongue, Sweet foretaste of the summer wind, That blows Across the waving green of the young rice, Across the unchained current of the distant dream, Between the singing strands of taut-stretched barrier-wire, To speak the future freely In guarded whispers Only the prisoner knows these things Only the Heart is a collection of memories, thoughts and feelings both in the past and present, this novel portrays the hardships and struggles that a Vietnamese family endures through the years of approaching communism. Their desperate flea from the only home they have ever known and the loved ones that they may never see again, all in search of a place where freedom and hope are as abundant as the air that you breathe. The life that teens our age go through for freedom, opinions, safety, choices, a future and a new beginning. These are the things we take for granted. This sad but inspiring story written by Brian Caswell and David Phu An Chiem captures every terrifying moment of war, from the time families are torn apart to the refugee camps. Set in Southern Vietnam in the 1970s during the war between Vietnam and America, this book is the truth that was once felt by thousands of Vietnamese families. Imagine one day you wake up and the currency changes, any money you have will turn into only 200 Dong. No money from the old currency is to be accepted. Your parents start packing the valuables that you own. They tell you to quickly get change. The whole house is a mess; the adults are running around like crazy with half open bags. And the next thing you know, you are pushed onto a wooden boat escaping from the war, from Vietnam, from the only home you have ever known. The purpose of this story was to show how meaningless war is and the things it does to people and their families. Some of the effective aspects of this book include the format in which it was written.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Doctor-Assisted Suicide Essay -- Euthanasia Essays

Doctor-Assisted Suicide   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Suicide is the act or instance of taking one's own life voluntarily and intentionally especially if that person is of sound mind. Euthanasia is the act or practice of killing individuals who are hopelessly sick or injured for reasons of mercy. Doctor-assisted suicide is a term used to describe the act of a doctor or physician providing direct or indirect means of assisting someone in taking their own life. There are 2 types of euthanasia. Passive euthanasia is withholding life-sustaining treatment either before or after it has been initiated. Active euthanasia is "taking steps to end your life, as in suicide, handling the action yourself" (Humphry 20). It is an explicit act such as writing a lethal prescription or a directly injecting a lethal dose. Approximately 30,000 Americans kill themselves every year. This means that the rate of suicide is about 11.0 per 100,000 people. This rate is just the average, and it varies greatly among sexes and races. The suicide r ate for males is 19.8, but the rate for females is 3.8. This difference in rates appears deceptive because females are 3 times more likely to attempt suicide than males. Males are just more effective in their methods. White Americans have a higher rate of suicide than any other ethnic group. It is believed that homosexuals have a much greater rate than heterosexuals, but this is difficult to research because many homosexuals hide their sexual orientation from fear of persecution. The terminally ill are most closely associated with the doctor-assisted suicide issue. Many in this group argue that once all medical care has failed, then one has the right to hasten death to avoid pain and suffering. If a person is going to inevitably die from a painful disease, then that person should have the right to decide when, where, and how death comes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are many ways for one to commit suicide. The 2 major types are self-inflicted and assisted. Despite the popular issue of legalizing doctor-assisted suicide, most suicides remain self-inflicted. Zeinert describes the statistics:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS),   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  the majority of those who commit suicide do so by shooting   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  themselves. In fact, the latest statistics available from the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  NCHS show that 59 percent of all suicides were committed   Ã‚  ... ...ks Cited Cohen, Adam. "Showdown for Doctor Death." Time 7 Dec. 1998.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2 Nov. 2001 <   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  nation.showdown_for_doc2a.html>. Greenhouse, Linda. "Justices Uphold Laws Banning Assisted Suicide." The New York Times on the Web 27 June 1997. 30 Oct. 2001 <>. "High Court Rejects Constitutional Right To Doctor-Assisted Suicide." American Civil Liberties Union News 26 June 1997. 30 Oct. 2001 <>. Humphry, Derek. Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Assisted Suicide for the Dying. Eugene: The Hemlock Society, 1991. Katz, Stephen R. "Doctor Assisted Suicide-a Bad Oxymoron and a Bad Idea." Connecticut Post 27 Apr. 1998. 30 Oct. 2001 <>. Torr, James, ed. Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven P, 2000. Uhlmann, Michael, ed. Last Rights? Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia Debated. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1998. Zeinert, Karen. Suicide: Tragic Choice. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 1999.

A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare Essay -- Papers

A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare In the second scene that completes Act I, we are introduced to an extraordinary group of familiar but outlandish comical characters that have been enlightened with the possibility of performing a stage interlude as part of the entertainment at the quick approaching marriage of Theseus and Hippolyta. ====================================================================== The Mechanicals are not only thought of as the 'rude mechanicals', they are also thought of as sweet and gentle folk who have had no promoting purpose in their lives until now. ================================================================== Peter Quince play as one of the mechanicals as the Playwright for the amateurs. We are able to tell that he is more experienced in writing as Shakespeare makes him present his prologue which is a masterpiece of writing deliberately ruined to give the play a comical beginning. Shakespeare does this by making Quince seem like a very smart man, the smartest out of the mechanicals and we know this because he is directing the play and not actually featuring it. This shows us the audience that he has a shy character although he seems very excited and open towards the beginning of the play when actually he seems to have Stage fright. ====================================================================== Nick Bottom the Weaver seems however to be very enthusiastic and wants to play all the roles, furthermore he always tends to overact which annoys Peter Quince but ends up acting the part of Pyramus in the Act 5 Scene 1. ==========================================... ...; my soul is in the sky: Tongue, lose thy light! Moon, take thy flight! Now die, die, die, die, die. At the end of the play both Bottom and Flute get up from where they are lying, supposedly dead, and offer to perform an epilogue or a bergamask (a type of dance). Theseus quickly intervenes and tells them they need no epilogue, but rather should only perform the dance, which they do and Puck ends the play. Overall the play within a play is an exciting look into the life of the mechanicals and has a definite dramatic effect on both audience's because of its charm and amusing effects, which too me would have made the audience applause, thus making it a good way to finish the play. This is because it helps break the illusion of the theatre and helps to bring us back down to earth, to the day of the wedding.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Dr Jack Perry Motivation case Essay

This case revolves around Dr. Jack Perry, the protagonist, is proprietary dentist clinic. Dr. Perry is a successful dentist in a small town of Cromwell in Canada. He had purchased the practice from a retiring dentist and has been successful in his practice considerably. However, he now faces a management problem of motivating his employees who are suffering from low morale and do not seem to be working as hard as they could to help increase the revenue of the clinic. Dr. Perry, had attended a dental conference in Chicago in 2005, and recalled two approaches to profit sharing which would help in motivating the employees. He now faces the dilemma as to which one of the two pay structures would be best suited for his practice as selecting a wrong pay structure could lead to further de-motivation of his employees. BACKGROUND OF THE CASE Dr. Jack Perry has managed to run a thriving dentistry practice in Cromwell which had a population of only 3000 and served an additional 7000 people from the surrounding areas. He had little competition in the form of 3 other dentists. Dr. Perry has sound financials and is witnessing a growth rate of 15 % annually. In conformance with industry norms Dr. Perry employs three categories of employees namely, receptionists, hygienists and assistants. At present he employs two part time receptionists, two full time hygienists, one full time assistant and one part time assistant. His employees were paid their wages at competitive hourly rates prevalent in the market. In addition to their hourly wages, they were given an Annual cash bonus of $400 during Christmas which was well appreciated by his employees. Dr. Jack Perry was quite involved with his staff by regularly discussing their work and salary on an informal basis. He allowed his employees 3 weeks holidays in a year. As a result Dr. Perry had virtually no staff turnover. Despite the his easy going manner, competitive salary and a pleasant work environment, Sandi the receptionist, had concluded that the morale was low among the staff, an observation Dr. Perry had made himself. OBJECTIVES To study the benefits and drawbacks of the two pay structures , its financial impact on the employees and how they would help him resolve the issue of low morale in the organization. To suggest the best suited pay-structure for Dr. Perry’s practice which would help him increase his collections by motivating his employees. CHARACTER SKETCH OF DR.PERRY Dr. Jack Perry is a dentist who has completed his graduation from an Ontario University dental school in 2011. He was a sole practitioner dentist in Cromwell, Ontario. Becoming a dentist in Canada was a rigorous process which required a lot of hard work and which included three years of study at the undergraduate level, followed by four years at an accredited dental school. Perry was happy with his work as he was giving competition to other three dentists in Cromwell. He was doing far better than his competitors and was proud of the financial success which came along with it. His business was now growing at 15 per cent annually. Perry had created a comfortable and easy going environment at the workplace. He used to have informal meetings with the staff annually to discuss the work and salary. His staffs were given three weeks of holiday per year. Not only this, but he also allowed his staff to take further unpaid vacation time as long as they can provide him with another staff member to handle their shifts. This gave the flexibility to the staff members as this thing made easier for them to spend some time with their families. All the team plans and organize the Christmas party before Christmas holidays. He used to give cash bonus for their hard work throughout the year. He was a benevolent boss. CASE ANALYSIS 1. The main reason for the decaying employee morale was the quick growth of the business. Dr. Perry’s employees were well compensated at competitive market rates and enjoyed a pleasant working environment. The annual growth of the business (15%) meant that his employees were making relatively less money than Dr. Perry himself. The current pay structure did not have any provision for any category of employees to earn a proportion of the profits. Every employee has a fixed hourly salary. Thus, a bigger business meant that they felt like slave labourers since they were aware of the increase in the practice’s revenues and number of patients. 2. Dr. Perry’s revenues largely depended on the hygienists who generated about 40% of the revenues. Even the receptionists played a vital role in adding to the revenue by filling in cancelled appointments. His assistants too contributed by playing the role of nurses by comforting the patients which further helped in patient retention. Thus it would seem only fair that a part of the profits must be shared with the employees in the form of a variable pay structure. 3. As per the conference which Dr. Perry had attended, the first approach of remunerating the employees focused on the contribution of the hygienists only. As per this approach, the hygienists would be paid purely on a commission basis of around 40% of the total earnings. The main advantages of this system are: It recognises the direct effect of the hygienists’ efforts on the revenues of the practice and rewards them for the same. A 40% commission would be financially more beneficial to the hygienists assuming the current level of collections. Also it is forecasted that such a pay structure would result in an increase in the billings by about 13%. The major drawback of this system is that it simply does not completely recognize the contribution of the receptionists and the assistants in the revenue generation of the firm. The pay structure does not clearly define how commission would be linked to the total earning of the receptionists and the assistants. Also, by making the earnings of the hygienists completely dependent on the revenue, it may lead to dissatisfaction of the hygienists of the collections did not increase. 4. The second approach states that the employees should be given a share of the profits at a pre established percentage over and above their hourly wage rates. This method ensured that : Some parts of the profits were distributed to all the categories of employees. At the same time since the employees would receive their hourly rates in any case, it would give them a sense of security and eventually help in maintaining the pleasant work atmosphere. However, this method did not distinguish between the categories of employees who contributed more to the revenues than those who contributed comparatively less. This could lead to de-motivation of the hygienists who had a direct impact on the revenues of the companies. Solutions/Suggestions For Hygienist : 1. Perry’s Clinic should recognise best skilled hygienists. Perry should conduct special trainings for the underperformers and bring them to the same level. 2. Targets of hygienists need to be on a similar alignment as that of the firm. 3. Teamwork needs to be motivated through annual bonus. 4. Incentives can be introduced to keep the results persistent. 5. The firm should control the cost through effective pay strategy. The above decisions could have the following effect on the hygienists – their income would increase; the effort put in by an individual would benefit him/her i.e. every individual is responsible for his/her incentives. Thirdly they would get an opportunity to work with an efficient peer group thereby nurturing each other. For Assistants & Receptionists: 1. The firm should encourage wage earners to spend time on highly skilled tasks. 2. Decrease interoffice concern about peer pay. Pay should be based on training level. 3. The weekly payroll should be known. 4. Annual bonus would motivate team work and coordination. By implementing these they would have stable pay, little daily pressure to up sell services. Their pay easily calculated each week. It would allow them to take time off providing high quality of work. CONCLUSIONS In the scenario where Dr. Perry business is growing at a healthy rate it is important to continuously monitor pay structure of the firm and revise it from time to time since remuneration is directly related to the motivation level of the employees. Dr. Perry must change the pay structure to accommodate profit sharing with the employees in the form of a bonus which would be a percentage of the total profits of the practice, in the case of increased revenues for that particular year. This method is better for the business at this stage because the practice is still in a growth stage. The profits can be divided among the different categories of employees in a number of ways. A drastic change in the pay structure from fixed to completely variable is not recommended because in case of lower collections in any particular year, it may lead to lower earnings for the employees. This pay structure can be further revised in the future to increase the profit sharing element in the remuneration of the employees as the firm grows bigger. MANAGERIAL LEARNINGS 1. Monetary benefits motivate people to perform better in most cases. It is important for managers to understand the link between the pay structure and the motivation levels of employees. Merely high wage rates may not be sufficient to motivate the employees and they must given a fair share of the profits earned by the firm. 2. Performance linked Variable Pay (PLVP) is a salary component present in most of the MNCs. This keeps the employees motivated to continuously increase their productivity rather than a fixed salary which may lead to a laid back style of working thereby impacting the performance negatively. 3. It is important for mangers to know the contribution of individual employees and different categories of employees and must frame the pay structure in accordance with the same. This would ensure that employees are rewarded sufficiently for better performances. 4. Keeping the market standards in mind, pay – structures must be constantly monitored and should be revised along with the growth of the firm in terms of revenue earned and the volume of business for employees of all levels. 5. Firms disclose their revenue generated through Quarterly/Semi Annual Meets. Managers must make sure that the employees understand not only the revenue aspect of a growing firm but also the increased costs associated with them and therefore emphasise on the need for higher productivity from the employees.