Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Fire :: Personal Narrative Writing

The Fire â€Å"C’mon, it’ll only take you a second,† he said. I can still remember the look on his face; he looked like a puppy begging for a treat. My red-haired neighbor was three years older than me; he had a sprinkle of freckles across his cheeks and a certain charm in his voice. â€Å"Ben, I don’t know about this. I don’t want to get into trouble,† I, being ever cautious, was always reluctant to participate in Ben’s adventures. â€Å"No one is going to find out. Stop being such a baby, and go get them!† he said, growing impatient. I was put in a difficult position. I had Smokey the Bear telling me it was wrong, and my best friend accusing me of being a coward. â€Å"All right, fine,† I said grudgingly, â€Å"I’ll get the matches, but you better come with me.† My heart was already racing, and I could feel my palms moisten. My father was the manager at the local bowling alley. This arrangement suited us well, as we would often spend our afternoons lounging around the bowling alley. For this particular act of mischief, the â€Å"Superbowl† was the perfect place to obtain our sought after matches. Much to our joy, the Superbowl was a mere mile away from our houses, just the right distance for twelve-year olds. It was far enough to seem like another world, yet close enough for us to venture to alone. We made our way through the dense foliage and towards the bowling alley. We had cleverly named our backyards as â€Å"The Woods†. For a child, even a dozen trees make a thick jungle. We soon came upon the large single-storied building; the prized matches were within. I saw the bowl full of matches on the snack bar counter. My heart was racing and my head was pounding; I might as well have been stealing the crown jewels. Much to my surprise, getting the unholy packet of matches was easy. We soon had what we yearned for. We now headed for our ‘Cabin’. The Cabin was a small clearing in a patch of trees. This provided us with ample space to play, and gave us the seclusion and privacy which acts of mischief required. We gathered the necessary materials and headed for Ben’s house. What possessed us to play with fire in the basement of his house, I cannot fathom. Ben and spoke little during this period.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Psy 240 – Lesson 2 Essay

Identify the teratogens covered in this chapter and birth defects/disorders they can cause. Format your response as though you were giving a brief prevention lecture to young married couples. Your answer should be no fewer than 400 words in length. We are all aware of genetic and hereditary factors that may impact the health of the newborn baby. However, our ability to prevent genetic disorders is limited to genetic testing of parents and prenatal diagnostic methods that can reveal early warning signs of genetic defects before birth.Another group of factors that can greatly influence the health and the development of a baby are environmental agents. These agents are commonly referred to as teratogens and include any environmental agent that can cause damage during the prenatal period. Unlike genetic factors, the damaging effects of the teratogens during the prenatal period and after birth are almost completely preventible by the parents. Most common teratogens that can impact pregnan cy and child development are: prescription and non-prescription drugs, illegal drugs, alcohol, tobacco, infectious disease, radiation and environmental pollutants.Many prescription and non-prescription drugs exert side-effects that may be harmful during the prenatal period. Even when these side-effects are not noticeable or are not affecting the mother they may be interfering with the normal prenatal development of the baby during early and later stages of the pregnancy. For this reason all newly-expecting women or those planning to become pregnant need to consult with a doctor about any prescription drugs they may have been taking and certainly before starting therapy with any new medications.Many people consider non-prescription or â€Å"over-the-counter† drugs to be safe because no physicians prescription is required for their purchase. This is a common and often a dangerous mistake. Many â€Å"over-the-counter† drugs and products are not classified as drugs but rat her as nutritional supplements and as such don't require FDA licensing and control. In general these products can be dangerous to health since their contents and action mechanism have not be adequately or scientifically tested. Their consumption by pregnant or planning -to-become pregnant women can be particularly dangerous.New mothers need to consult a medical professional before using any over-the-counter products including vitamin and mineral supplements. Another category of common products that often get overlooked but can be dangerous to prenatal development and infant health are cosmetics. Many cosmetic products contain chemicals that can be harmful to the mother and the baby. For instance, many anti-acne products and â€Å"blemish-removal† products contain retinol and retinoic acid which can affect the baby during the first trimester.The retinol based â€Å"over-the-counter† products, such as Retine-A cream, are similar to the prescription drug Accutane which is prohibited for use by pregnant women as it causes damage to baby's eyes, brain, immune system, ears and skull. Other commonly used beauty products can be dangerous as well. Some examples are lipsticks that may contain lead, lotions and creams containing paraben, hair colors, tanning products and many more. The best prevention is to avoid use of pharmaceuticals, supplements and cosmetics before and during pregnancy without consulting a doctor first.The use of illegal drugs prior to and during pregnancy and while breast feeding is extremely damaging to the baby. Commonly used â€Å"street drugs† such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, methamphetamines and their derivatives cause a multitude of prenatal development abnormalities and can cause a lasting damage to the child's physical and mental health. Some of these abnormalities include: low birth weight, respiratory and cardiac difficulties, vision and hearing problems, metabolic abnormalities, premature birth and can cause death during or shortly after birth.Damage to the nervous system is particularly evident among illicit-drugs affected newborns and they are usually irritable, exhibit neurotic crying and often have lasting cognitive and social development difficulties and behavioral problems. The use of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines and other so called â€Å"heavy drugs†, pre- and, during pregnancy and while breast feeding is especially dangerous as it causes the drug addiction of the newborn.The maternal use of marijuana causes a multitude of physical and psychological problems to the newborn including low birth weight, brain development abnormalities, depression and learning difficulties. Though it can not be linked to the inherited drug-addiction of the newborn, the use of â€Å"street drugs† by a father has been linked to a multitude of genetic diseases transferred to the off-spring. Though the exact modalities have not yet been determined for every drug, it is certain that use of dr ugs by a father causes mutations of the paternal DNA and therefore impacts the genotype of the baby.Persons with drug addiction problems planning to start a family should consult a medical professional well ahead of becoming pregnant to plan a course of action to cease the drug abuse and limit its damaging effects on the baby as well as parents. Already pregnant women with drug abuse problems need to contact the doctor as soon as possible to assess the risk and plan the best course of action needed. Alcohol consumption is one of the most damaging factors to a healthy pregnancy and birth. Mistakenly, most people consider â€Å"social drinking†, a consumption of one to two drinks daily or few time per week, to not be damaging to health.Though some evidence exists that a low or moderate consumption of alcohol can be beneficial to cardiovascular health, it is well established that even small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy can be detrimental to the prenatal development of the child. Alcohol causes a variety of prenatal development abnormalities jointly referred to as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The FAS manifests itself in recognizable cranio-facial morphological deformities such as widely spaced eyes, a thin upper lip, small upward pointing nose, short eye-lid openings and a small head.The overall growth of the child is slowed. Furthermore, FAS causes a multitude of mental abnormalities such as attention, memory and language deficits, hyperactivity and abnormal motor skills and coordination. It has been established that these abnormalities result from the damaging effects of alcohol on neuron development in the early phases of pregnancy. Due to the overexpendature of oxygen by mother's body during alcohol metabolism, the fetus is often oxygen deprived which further contributes to development of the above mentioned health problems.Though the amount of alcohol consumed during pregnancy determines the extent of the damage caused, even small amounts of al cohol consumed can cause some of the symptoms listed. This milder form of FAS is referred to as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) and is equally concerning. Similarly to illegal drugs use, a link had been established between consumption of alcohol by a father and the mutations it causes to the paternal DNA which leads to multiple genetic defects of the offspring. All couples planning to bear children should stop all alcohol consumption well ahead of the time of pregnancy.Those with alcohol dependency should seek professional help in quitting drinking as alcoholism is a disease and requires a complex approach to physical and psychological issues that are causing it. The damaging effects of smoking on human health are well known but large number of child-bearing aged women still use tobacco regularly. The use of tobacco before, during and after the pregnancy has been linked to a multitude of infant health problems during the prenatal period and childhood. The tobacco using women are at a hi gher risk of miscarriage during pregnancy.It is a well known fact that nicotine, which is a vasoconstrictor, prevents an adequate blood flow to the uterus and causes defects to the placenta. In turn, the exchange of the nutrients between a mother and the baby is disturbed resulting in fetal malnutrition and low birth weight. As we know, low birth weight is a main predictor of the physical and mental developmental difficulties of the child. Nicotine affected babies are often born prematurely and exhibit cardiac and respiratory problems such as arrhythmia, asthma, sleep apnea, and are at a higher risk of developing cancer during childhood.The rate of infant death is also higher among this population of newborns. Even if physical health problems are not obvious, many nicotine-exposed babies display a certain degree of behavioral problems during their development. These can range from diminished sensory response, such as that to a sound, through over stimulation by touch and vision to a multitude of learning impairments. The best prevention to the nicotine-exposure health related issues is quitting smoking well before becoming pregnant.Even quitting smoking during pregnancy will greatly reduce the health risks to the baby. Joint quitting of smoking by both parents is usually the most successful approach as partners are able to support each other during this difficult endeavor. Exposure to the second hand smoke during pregnancy is equally as damaging to both mother and the baby. Again, quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to the second hand smoke will not only protect the child but also improve the health of the parents in the long run.All sexually active persons need to regularly undergo testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Prevention of, and regular testing for, STDs shows not only a concern about personal health but also a responsible approach to protecting the health of the partner and especially the health of the children the relationship may re sult in. Many STDs and infectious diseases are easily transferred during conception and from the mother to the embryo during this critical period of prenatal development. Many of these infections can cause serious and long-term defects to the fetus as well.Common birth defects caused by infection transmission during pregnancy include mental retardation, cardiac, respiratory and digestive system problems, vision and hearing damage and multitude of other conditions. One of the most dangerous STDs transferred from an infected mother to a baby is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes AIDS. The HIV-infected babies develop symptoms of AIDS much faster than adults. The disease progression can be as rapid as a few months after birth with most ill babies dying within first 5-8 months after birth.Women aware of their HIV positive status should consult with the specialist if planning on becoming pregnant to asses risk and discuss possible prophylactic methods that can be employed to prevent transmission. Couples and individuals planning on pregnancy should test for infectious diseases before conception and address any concerns they may have with a health care professional. In the case of HIV, many newly-developed anti-retro viral therapies can prevent the risk of transmission onto baby by as much as 95%.Other infectious diseases that should be of concern when planning pregnancy or when pregnant are herpes, hepatitis, rubella, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, etc. Exhaustive testing for infectious diseases by both parents performed by a specialist is the best prevention of pregnancy complications and transmission to the newborn. Another teratogen that is of concern when evaluating the prenatal health is radiation. Though not as commonly encountered as other teratogens, radiation can be as devastating to the prenatal and postnatal development of the child.Exposure to radiation during pregnancy often leads to a miscarriage or birth defects such as physical deformities, ce ntral nervous system abnormalities, slow growth as well as a multitude of learning and emotional problems. Pregnant women and those planning on becoming pregnant should avoid exposure to radiation such as occupational exposure, for example radiology technicians, or medical exposure such as during exams with x-rays and other radioactive agents. Men should avoid exposure to radiation as well, as radioactive agents can cause mutations of the paternal DNA which can lead to birth defects of the offspring.Any concerns about possible radiation exposure need to be addressed with a medical professional as many methods are available to prevent and limit the damaging effects of radiation. Environmental pollution is probably a teratogen that is the hardest to avoid or prevent. As we know our ecosystem, be it the air, the land or the water, is heavily polluted with many agents and has lead to an increase of cancers, respiratory, neurological, hereditary and many other diseases in human populatio n. Unfortunately, environmental pollutants affect humans from our early days of prenatal development.One of the main ways babies get exposed to this teratogen is through the nutrient exchange during the prenatal development. The pollutants transferred through these means include mercury and other heavy metals found in contaminated food and water. The exposure to heavy metals during the prenatal development has been implicated with causing a multitude of abnormalities of the nervous system and psychological disorders. Many toxins commonly found in the products for everyday use cause many metabolic, immunity and respiratory disorders that have a long lasting effects on the health of the newborn.Environmental pollution is directly linked with childhood cancers as well as hereditary predisposition for cancer development. Some of the measures that can be taken during pregnancy to minimize the damaging effects of this teratogen include limiting the consumption of large predatory fish, suc h as salmon and tuna, which are often high in their mercury content, avoiding antibiotics and steroids contaminated meats as well as pesticide treated fruits and vegetables.Staying indoors and using air-filtration systems during high air-pollution days can prevent exposure to carbon monoxide and combustion byproduct gases. The use of industrial and chemical cleaning agents and chemicals should be avoided or limited to a minimum. As we can see there are many teratogens we are exposed to daily and though they damage our health it is especially frightening to think of the effects they have on the health of our unborn babies.Though these concerns are valid they should not stand in the way of enjoying the pregnancy, child birth and child rearing as the most pleasant and enriching experience of the lifetime. As we have learned most of the damaging effects of teratogens can be avoided and prevented through education, being aware of the risk factors and being proactive in taking steps to av oid the exposure and damage by practicing healthy living habits and seeking help when needed.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Effects of Cyber Addiction - 1843 Words

The Effects of Cyber Addiction in Academic Performance Among Selected First Year Students of San Beda College – Alabang A Research Paper Presented to The Faculty of College of Arts and Sciences Major in Psychology Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa NBP Reservation, Poblacion, Muntinlupa City In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the subject PSY-312B-2 Psychological Research By: Bon, Lady Arriane E. Domanais, Alvin October 2010 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Ten years ago, the only people who spent a majority of their leisure time on the computer were paid members of the technology industry. Today, however, surfing the web has become a pastime as social and marketable as bar hopping or†¦show more content†¦He took pathological gambling as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as his model for the description of IAD. Online activities which, if done in person, would normally be considered troublesome, such as compulsive gambling or shopping, are sometimes called net compulsions. Others, such as reading or playing computer games, are troubling only to the extent that these activities interfere with normal life. Supporters of disorder classification often divide IAD into subtypes by activity, such as excessive, overwhelming, or inappropriate pornography use, gaming, online social networking, blogging, email, or Internet shopping. Opponents note that compulsive behaviors may not themselves be addictive. Computer addiction is an idea that has been in existence for years. Since the 1970s, avid computer programmers and hackers have been called â€Å"addicts† by both psychologists and the general public (Reed, 2002, p. 135). In 1976, Weizenbaum wrote about computer programmers who could sit and work at their computer terminals for twenty or thirty hours at a time. This behavior however, was viewed at the time as useful to technology and society. Computers, once seen as huge government machines that only very knowledgeable people could use, transformed into user-friendly tools that could be used by the everyday person. It became more common to see computers in homes and businessesShow MoreRelatedSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1564 Words   |  7 Pagesof social media, physiological issues and issues of social well-being are being brought to light through research and studies investigating the truly negative effects of social media. Some of the risk that are highlighted t hrough research into the effects of social media includes the risks of addiction, ‘Facebook depression’, ‘sexting’, cyber bullying and online harassments as well as associated privacy risks of all forms of social media2 (O’Keefe 2011). As human beings it is a part of our intrinsicRead MoreWhat is Cyber Relationship Addiction? 1544 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, addiction refers to the strong yet harmful need to constantly have something or to do something. As for cyber relationship addiction, it is the addiction to â€Å"social networking, chat rooms, texting, and messaging to the point where virtual, online friends become more important than real-life relationships with family and friends† (Ramdhonee 2014). Why is this topic of interest important? The main reason cited is that the Internet has undoubtedlyRead MoreCauses And Effects Of Social Media1049 Words   |  5 Pageswhat effect social media has on people worldwide. Many people are using social media daily and because of that, they might not know the effects that can be lurking behind a screen and causing harm to their mental health. Social media has many negative effects on mental health. 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Ricco Siasoco defines Internet addiction as â€Å"a broad term including users addicted to chat rooms, auctions, web surfing, among others.† These other Internet addictions may include cyber relationships, gaming, and trading. I have read several articles related to Internet addiction, and can not come to a conclusion on whether or not it is a true addiction. However, I do believe that the Internet does have a negative effect on American families. There have beenRead MoreWhat are the Effects of Modern Technology on Relationships? Essay1448 Words   |  6 Pagesthe period of letter writing to house phone usage, which became popular in the beginning of the 20th century. From the time of letter writing to the current century, technology has evolved to e-communication and cell phone usage. 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Added to this fact, the internet is widely available in people’s homesRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of The Internet On Human Life761 Words   |  4 Pages Effects of The Internet on Human Life The Internet is a technology that has negative impacts on our daily lives. It has changed aspects of our life for the last 50 years, and it has demonstrated the considerable influence on people’s lives. Almost 3.2 billion people in the world use the internet. The Internet has gained acceptance across the globe, and it has also become a reason behind the critical changes in the modern society. Some of the changes are social isolation, health disorder, lack ofRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society1155 Words   |  5 Pagesunhealthy addictions. Social networking sites do have a beneficial effect. They make it easier to keep up with their distant friends and family. However, these sites are preventing real life relationships. Although many people think they need social networking sites to keep up with their friends, networking sites should have a limited access policy, because it discourages too many people from physical interaction, identity theft has become a much bigg er issue, and nothing is done about cyber bullyingRead MoreSocial Networking And Its Effects On Society988 Words   |  4 Pagesshare of negative effects on people. It is indeed true that the way social networking revolutionized the communication channels and brought thr world closer but one should also be wary of its ill effects. A general assumption is that communication technologies help to increase and strengthen social ties. (Cheryl L. Coyle, 2008). Addiction People are getting addicted to using the social networking even to update mundane things in life. Jerry ruined his life because of his addiction to such sites. Soon

Saturday, December 28, 2019

God Me, Ultima, By Rudolfo Anaya s Bless Me - 1268 Words

Mythology in Bless Me, Ultima Rudolfo Anaya s Bless Me, Ultima, is a novel concerned with the nature of individual and cultural identity. Commentators on the book argue that one of its most significant aspects is its ability to communicate a uniquely Chicano experience at a formative point in world history. The role of myth is key to the production of this voice. Not only do myths play a major role within the action of the novel itself, but they also contribute significantly to the uniqueness of the Chicano voice as it is developed in the book. In this sense, myth is integral to both the action and the texture of the novel as a whole. Most importantly, it is the myth which enables the protagonist, Antonio, to both reconcile his past and to move forward with his voice. Myth functions within the novel as a way of breaking with the past, but also as a way of preserving it. It is possible to demonstrate this by paying attention to the myth of the golden carp as it functions as both a plot element and as a thematic co ncern within Anaya s novel. The central myth within Bless Me Ultima involves the golden carp, which Antonio is informed was once a god who sacrificed itself to protect the indigenous people who had themselves been transformed into carp by gods angry at their behavior during a famine. While this myth may appear to be a point of distinction between the novel and other literary traditions, according to Theresa Kanoza it also functions to tie the book to otherShow MoreRelated`` Bless Me, Ultima `` By Rudolfo Anaya983 Words   |  4 PagesRudolfo Anaya, author of â€Å"Bless Me, Ultima†, uses countless examples of folk-lore all throughout his novel. In doing so, he gives his readers great insight to the Mexican-American culture of the 1940’s during World War II, and how different the culture is than how most people are raised. The folk-lore Anaya used most effectively throughout â€Å"Bless Me, Ultima† is; the whole idea of growing up and becoming a man, beliefs of witchcraft, children losing their innocence and the characters religious beliefsRead More Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya Essay1652 Words   |  7 PagesBless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya Children believe what their parents tell them but as they get older they start to question that which used to be unquestionable. Bless Me, Ultima is a novel by Rudolfo Anaya about a young Chicano boy, Antonio Juan Marez y Luna, who is growing up and seeing the world for how cruel it really is. A wise old curandera, or faith healer, Ultima, arrives just before Tony receives his first glimpse into the world of men. Ultima gives Tony spiritual healing throughoutRead MoreBless Me Ultima By Rudolfo Anaya1463 Words   |  6 PagesB. Reyes 1 Bless Me Ultima Rudolfo Anaya L.A.P. Topic #4 Bairon Reyes Luna Mr. Amoroso Pd. 3 A.P. Literature 09/25/17 B. Reyes 2 In our hesitant humanly efforts to accept the ultimate fate, we find a painful truth, an agonizing indisputable fact that our lives must end, the way good days ends with peaceful sleep. Wistfully, we fail to discern the ironic beauty that is hidden, as we scramble to understand the superficial. This logical desire to understand its existence, and its necessity in our realityRead MoreThematic Analysis Of Bless Me, Ultima1580 Words   |  7 Pages Thematic Analysis of Conflicts in, Bless me, Ultima Differences in others aid to the stimulation of ideas and opinions that expresses an individual s personality. In Rudolfo Anaya’s bildungsroman, Bless Me, Ultima, the struggle between two families and their extreme differences cause numerous conflicts that are constantly present throughout his novel. In this chicano inspired novel, Antonio Marà ©z, the six year old protagonist, is perpetually faced with instances of dissimilarity throughoutRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book ​ Bless Me, Ultima ​ 1279 Words   |  6 Pagesï ¿ ¼Hempstead High School Bless Me, Ultima LAP Theresa Coleman English 12AP Mr. Amoroso September 26, 2016 ï ¿ ¼Death engenders ambivalence while questions lead to a tenuous connection with God. Death can galvanize the mind to a point of questioning that is so dangerous, it can rob from your innocence. This is true for children such as Antonio from the novel ​Bless Me Ultima ​by Rudolfo Anaya. As a child, Antonio was spoon fed a false sense of reality in which he would be a priest but death cleared hisRead MoreRudolfo Anayas Bless Me Ultima1373 Words   |  6 Pages Bless Me, Ultima Rudolfo Anaya Topic #1 Stephanie Chevez Mr. Amoroso AP Literature Pd: 3 The ocean of life is a constant routine to not only reconcile with certain circumstances, but to learn, to understand, and to accept them. With every new obstacle we face, this process is repeated absentmindedly, but the way we choose to react and what we absorb from these events is what ultimately makes us grow. As humans, we tend to find a suitable comfort spaceRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1982 Words   |  8 Pagesolder brother Jem were considered to be at the top of Maycomb’s social caste due to their light complexion, respectable family history, and Atticus’ career as a lawyer, other families were not so lucky. As Jem stated, There s the ordinary kind like us and the neighbors, there s the kind like the Cunninghams out in the woods, the kind like the Ewells down at the dump, and the Negroes. (Harper 259). Though the Cunningham’s were white, which would normally mean superiority in this small town, theirRead MoreBless Me, Ultima By Rudolfo Anaya1 002 Words   |  5 PagesIn the novel Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya, Antonio matures a great deal for his age due to the violent actions he is surrounded by.   Ã‚  Ã‚   In the beginning of the novel the main character Antonio Marez, who was just six years old at the time, lives in a small town located in New Mexico. He lives with his parents, Maria and Gabriel, and two sisters, Deborah and Theresa. Tony also has three older brothers, but they are off fighting at War. During this time an older women by the name of La GrandeRead MoreBless Me, Ultima By Rudolfo Anaya Essay1338 Words   |  6 PagesMiguel de Unamuno once said, â€Å"Faith which does not doubt is dead faith.† This quote embodies a key element that is explored in the novel Bless Me, Ultima written by Rudolfo Anaya. While reading the Chicano novel Bless Me, Ultima, the reader may begin to question Tony’s reliance on this faith. Tony spends most of the novel questioning God’s reasoning. He also takes a very keen interest in the complexities of the world that surrounds him. While this novel does revolve around the theme of soul-searchingRead MoreBless Me, Ultima By Rudolfo Anaya1361 Words   |  6 Pageshiding from ourselves. They can expand our thoughts to a multitude of different subjects and force us to be a slave to our dreams, such as facing parental pressure, religious ambivalence and the loss of one s innocence. This is true of Antonio Marez in the novel Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya. Antonio has lost control and begins to succumb to his dreams and loses control of himself. He battles his expectations given to him by his parents and also at the same time has another battle within himself

Friday, December 20, 2019

The Emigration Of The United States - 1877 Words

There are many reasons as to why people from other countries decide to make a journey to America. Some immigrants flee to the united states in an attempt to escape persecution, find economic prosperity, and to seek a new life that is filled with opportunities that would have been virtually impossible in their homeland. Others are escaping oppressive regimes or natural disasters that have ravaged their country. America’s reputation for being the â€Å"land of opportunity† filled with endless land just waiting to be claimed, plentiful jobs, and tolerance for all peoples has made the country a beacon for the â€Å"huddled masses†. Throughout America’s history immigrants have poured in from nations all over the world, but the most memorable waves of†¦show more content†¦These Irish immigrants faced a two month trip to America, where conditions on the ship were harsh, food was scarce, and death and illness were plenty. Once the Irish immigrants arrived in America, they were taken to Ellis Island for processing before they could begin their new lives in the United States. American life turned out to be not as ideal as the Irish immigrants expected. Irish Immigrants had to face a great deal of discrimination in their new homes. One reason for the harsh treatment of the Irish was religion. Many Protestants and other Americans felt distrustful of the the catholic religion; therefore the Irish were not to be trusted. Due to the clash of the Protestants and the Irish Catholics, much violence ensued which resulted in the attack of Irish Immigrants and their places of worship. Another issue that caused the ill treatment of the Irish was the fact that Americans considered the Irish to be a â€Å"servant class†. Having come to the United States with little to no money, no land, and very few skills, many of the Irish had to become indentured servants. Those who had jobs that didn t require servitude where jobs that required hard labor and barely anybody wanted, and the Irish were paid way below the average salary. In 1852, New York railroad contractors posted listings of hire which promised good pay, and when mostly Irish applied they lowered the average salary to around fifty cents a day for ten hour

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Global Financial Markets and Volatility †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Global Financial Markets and Volatility. Answer: Introduction Dow Jones Industrial average is used as the standard gauge for the assessment of economic health in United States. However, this particular index is able to consider only 30 companies and still considered as the leading stock exchange due to its broader scope and excellence in representing U.S. Stock market. The different types to the early initiatives taken by Donald Trumps regime have reignited the confidence of the investors and they are able to depict the factors affecting the capital market in a better way. The various actions taken by Trump have been able to state on the introduction of new blue chip stock options. The inclusion of broader SP 500 benchmark is conducive in setting new highs for the rallies in economically sensitive sectors. Dow Jones rose to a record-breaking 22,000 in August 2017. The study has introduced the conceptualization of the different types of the market which has been mainly discerned with debt and equity market. The report is seen to assess the various types of the factors which can discern funding and investment opportunities, assessing performance of the market and know about the contributing aspects for the performance in 2015-2017. The report has further decided on the opinion for the 2018 foutlook for the capital market standings[1]. Debt Market- Debt market is seen as the where the investors are seen to buy and sell securities mostly in form of bonds[2]. Debt market has been further considered as a substitute to channels for finance. Some of the main forms of the debt funds have been discerned with long term debt, short term debt, gift fund and monthly income plan (MIP). It has been also seen that debt market has been seen with the obligation to put collateral for securing loan fund. At the same time the funds can be raised otherwise also. Equity market- This is identified with the issuing and trading of shares through exchanges which takes place over the counter markets. This form of the market has been further termed as the stock market and forms a vital aspect of the market economy. This has been further seen to provide the investors slice of ownership in the organisation along the with realization of the gains in the future. This form of market has been further discerned as the meeting point for the seller and the buyers of the stock[3]. Funding and Investment opportunities International investment and the funding activities have been seen to be associated to the various endeavours which affect the investing activities as a result of currency conversions to foreign exchanges and regulations. At the same time it has been further discerned that the financial advisors are seen to recommend on the holding of the stock for a diversified portfolio. In addition to this, there have been several types of the other ways which has been taken into account with the consideration of the different type the other factors associated to the exchanging of currencies. The most common form of the investment in the foreign market has been discerned with the consideration of exchange traded funds (ETFs) or mutual funds which has been seen to be associated to the international stocks and bonds. The foreign holdings across the multiple industries and the countries among the investors have been further seen with quick and highly-diversified foreign exchange component in the port folio[4]. The various types of the investors has introduced sufficient amount of money in the stock across the globe which has been seen with the opportunities, such as investing in shares. The main opportunities in the capital market are evident with a mix of fiscal stimulus initiatives by Trump administration along with the acceleration of economic growth and inflation. The post election rally has been able to spend more amount of money, which has been further seen to be stalled with total number of investors below 20000[5]. Assessing market performance The depiction of the present situation of the market has been able to state on the early initiatives taken by the Donald Trump in terms of improving the infrastructure and following the different types of the policies which been seen with sending of the Dow Jones Industrial Average to close above 20,000 for the first time. The broader sense of SP 500 benchmark has been considered with economically sensitive sectors which have been considered with the executive decisions of Mr. Trump. Despite of the slower growth in the US dividend activity for Q2 2017, the growth in terms of DJIA has been discerned with all time high of 22000 points in August 2017. Aside from growing U.S. capital market, EU and UK market has been discerned with various types of the uncertainty with Brexit[6]. U.K. and European capital market are highly interconnected. This is evident with three quarters of all the capital market business in the EU 27 taking place in U.K. It has been further discerned that U.K. could miss out on the potential advantages of the capital market union projects. They have further warned that in the event of Brexit it would either come to halt or become more inward looking project for the rest of EU excluding UK. The various types of considerations for the emerging markets has been further seen to be discerned as per the losses which has been be resulted with the hike in the US interest rate and this hike in Asia and Nikkei has been further identified with the several consideration of the Shanghai Composite remaining sluggish in the mid year[7]. The closing of trading in New York was further seen to be decreased with 0.8% at 20068.5 and SP has been further seen to close up by 0.8%. This has been further seen to be depicted with small and domestically oriented companies[8]. Contributory factors to 2015-2017 performance The main form of the contributing factors to the financial performance has been further seen to be based on the use of long term financing option. This particular consideration has been based on the main form of the depiction which has been stated with the frequent use of financing as per the time frame exceeding by a period of one year. The limited consideration of the finance in the developing countries has been further seen to be evident among the smaller firms. The bulk of the long-term financial aspects have been seen to be used by banks with the use of the public equity and private equity with limited firms of all sizes. The different types of the consideration for the market failure has been further seen to be discerned as per the policy distribution and misappropriation effect in the long term finance, and suggestions which has been depicted in form of the important role of the policies addressed with several distortions and the failures in the capital market. The contributor y factors can be further discerned with other aspects which have been identified with the key policy and overcoming the challenges for long term finance, which is seen to be having an important role for economic growth and the sharing of the prosperity. The first quarter of the present fiscal year has been identified with expanding of the orders, promoting policies and improving the production and reducing the engineering costs[9]. Based on the prediction of the capital market experts, the stock market crashes has been considered as per the availability of the past data. As per the data of 2017, the IMF has been discerned with lower growth forecast for capital market of US for 2018. This is has been evident with a decrease of 2.1% from 2.5%. It has been further discerned that the various types of the consideration of the stocks of US has forced the investors for paying attention to the incessant calls for recession. In this particular article the biggest form of the stock market prediction has been seen with the one year points target for SP 500 to 2575, which has been seen with 6% upside increment than the present levels. Capital market researchers have further considered one of the most important forms of the market intelligence data with the various types of the increasing nature of the one-year points target for SP 500. This has been further seen to be discerned in form of the 6% performance increment based on present levels. There have been several types of the prediction which has showed bullish nature of the market prediction in 2018. The stock market prediction has been further able depict 2700 points as the target for SP 500. The target has been further seen to imply 11% increment from the present levels of observation. The sluggish stock market prediction has been further with the assessment of stock market crash expected to take place in Japan in 2018. The world market has been predicted to be facing a major situation of recession[10]. Conclusion The main aspect of the study has been able to highlight different types of capital market. International investment and the funding activities have been seen to be associated to the various endeavours which affect the investing activities as a result of currency conversions to foreign exchanges and regulations. At the same time it has been further discerned that the financial advisors are seen to recommend on the holding of the stock for a diversified portfolio. The post election rally has been able to spend more amounts of money which is seen to be stalled with total number of investors below 20000. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is seen to close above 20,000 for the first time. The broader sense of SP 500 benchmark has been considered with economically sensitive sectors. Although there is slower growth in the US dividend activity for Q2 2017, the growth in terms of DJIA has been discerned with all time high of 22000 points in August 2017. Aside from growing U.S. capital market, E U and UK market has been discerned with various types of the uncertainty with Brexit. U.K. could miss out on the potential advantages of the capital market union projects. They have further warned that in the event of Brexit it would either come to halt or become more inward looking project for the rest of EU excluding UK. Reference Banerjee, Ryan, Michael B. Devereux, and Giovanni Lombardo. "Self-oriented monetary policy, global financial markets and excess volatility of international capital flows."Journal of International Money and Finance68 (2016): 275-297. Bekaert, Geert, et al. "The global crisis and equity market contagion."The Journal of Finance69.6 (2014): 2597-2649. Bodie, Zvi.Investments. McGraw-Hill, 2013. Georgiadis, Georgios, and Johannes Grb. "Global financial market impact of the announcement of the ECB's asset purchase programme."Journal of Financial Stability26 (2016): 257-265. Haas, Ralph, and Iman Lelyveld. "Multinational banks and the global financial crisis: Weathering the perfect storm?."Journal of Money, Credit and Banking46.s1 (2014): 333-364. Horowitz, Noah.Art of the deal: Contemporary art in a global financial market. Princeton University Press, 2014. Masciandaro, Donato, ed.Global financial crime: terrorism, money laundering and offshore centres. Taylor Francis, 2017. Miranda-Agrippino, Silvia, and Hlne Rey.World asset markets and the global financial cycle. No. w21722. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2015. Rey, Hlne.Dilemma not trilemma: the global financial cycle and monetary policy independence. No. w21162. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2015. Valdez, Stephen, and Philip Molyneux.An introduction to global financial markets. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Person-Organisation Fit free essay sample

Contents Person-Organisation Fit2 Forms of P-O fit2 Measures of P-O fit3 Antecedents and outcomes of P-O fit3 Impacts of P-O fit on organisation and individuals4 Performance4 Turnover4 Homogeneity and creativity5 Comparison P-O fit with P-J fit5 Effective management of person-organisation fit6 Importance of Assessing P-O fit in employee selection6 Nurturing P-O fit after the selection process7 Managing P-O fit in organisation with high diversity7 Conclusion10 References12 Bibliography16 Person-Organisation Fit Person-Organisation fit(P-O fit) is broadly defined as the compatibility between people and organisations (Kristof 1996); a compatibility of values and expectations between employee and employer. It is the congruence of an individual’s beliefs and values with the culture, norms, and values of an organization. Forms of P-O fit Kristof (1996) further explains P-O Fit has three main forms. * The first is supplementary fit. It exists when the characteristics of one thing are similar to the same characteristics of something else. * The two other forms of P–O fit are different aspects of complementary fit. Rather than similarity, complementary P–O fit is about one of the parties (the individual or the organization) making the other whole (Muchinsky and Monahan, 1987). It can take several forms such as needs–supplies or demands–abilities relationships (Kristof, 1996). A high level of individual complementary P–O fit exists when the organization supplies what the individual needs. A high level of organizational complementary P–O fit exists when an individual has the abilities, attitudes etc. that the organization demands. Measures of P-O fit Person’s fit to the organisation can be measured on four different levels * Measuring similarity between characteristics of people and organisations * Measuring the goal congruence with organisational leaders or peers (Vancouver, Millsap Peters 1994) * Measuring similarity between individual preferences or needs and organisational systems and structures (Cable Judge 1994) –this reflects the needs-supplies fit perspective. * Measuring similarity between characteristics of an individual personality and organisational climate-sometimes labelled as organisational personality. Bowen et al 1991) Antecedents and outcomes of P-O fit According to Schneider’s (1987) ASA (Attractive-Selection-Attrition) framework people and organisations are attracted to each other based on their similarity. Thus both applicant job choice behaviour and organisations’ hiring practices are the major antecedents of P-O fit. Following organisation entry individual and organisational so cialisation practices contribute to P-O fit. Socialisation helps establish P-O fit between newcomers and organisation (Chatman 1991; Cable Parsons, 2001) Impacts of P-O fit on organisation and individuals High level of P-O fit is related to a number of positive outcomes. P-O fit is correlated to work attitudes like job satisfaction and organisational commitment, organisational citizenship, self reported team work, creativity, and contextual performance (Boxx, Odom and Dunn, 1991; Chatman 1991). It can also predict intention of quit and turnover. Performance Holland (1985) stated that individuals will achieve greatest performance when their skills and traits fit those of the organization. In support of this statement, Caldwell O’Reilly (1990) found that P-O fit is positively related to job performance. Turnover Research examining the relationship between P-O fit and turnover suggests that employees whose values match those of their organization are less likely to experience feelings of incompetence or anxiety (Chatman, 1991). In contrast, employees who do not have a strong fit will either self-select out or will be released by the organization. For this reason, employees who fit with the organization are likely to have higher job satisfaction and lower intentions to quit than those who do not. This is also a measure of organizational commitment (Caldwell O’Reilly, 1990; Chatman, 1991; Saks Ashforth, 1997; Vancouver et al. 1994). Homogeneity and creativity P-O fit research also suggests that employees who have strong fit also possess certain degree of similarity or homogeneity (Lopez McMillan-Capehart, 2003). As a result, a criticism of P-O fit is that it results in employees who think similarly and thus there is less innovation and creative in the organization. Payne, Lane Jabri (1990) have questioned the desirability of too great a fit in creative industries, as ‘group think’ is detrimental to the innovation process. Comparison P-O fit with P-J fit Person-Job fit (P-J fit) is the most common way fit is defined by organizations. Person-Job fit involves the measurement of what we often refer to as â€Å"hard† information about a candidate’s suitability for the tasks that are required for successful performance of a specific job (Handler. C 2004). â€Å"Hard† aspects of P-J Fit include things such as a candidate’s specific skills, their levels of knowledge about specific subject matter, and their cognitive abilities. On the other hand, the elements of P-O Fit are rather soft. That is to say, it’s much more difficult to examine the job-related outcomes of a match between person and an organization as it elates to abstract concepts such as â€Å"values† and â€Å"culture† then it is to examine the outcomes of the match between harder traits, such as a person’s mathematical ability and the related aspects of their job performance. Just because it’s softer in nature and involves less objective constructs then P-J Fit, that doesn’t mean P-O Fit i s any less important. These insights on the two fit concepts suggest that they are complimentary measures that should account for different aspects of job performance and other organisational behaviors of an employee. Effective management of person-organisation fit As can be seen from the nature of the P-O fit, its involvement in the organisation and individual development starts at the selection process itself. It is then nurtured to grow by socialisation trends in the organisation. In this section effective management of P-O fit at various stages is discussed in detail Importance of Assessing P-O fit in employee selection In employee selection research , P-O fit can be conceptualised as the match between applicant and broader organisational attributes. Judge Ferris, 1992;Rynes Gerhart, 1990). P-O fit is very important in maintaining the flexible and committed workforce that is necessary in a competitive business environment and a tight labor market. (Bowen, Ledford Nathan,1991;Kristof 1996) Schneider’s (1987) ASA framework suggests that the sort of people within an organisation shape that organisation, yet that the culture of an organisation endures through changes in personnel. There i s then, a dynamic interaction between the people entering and leaving an organisation and its cultural characteristics. Cultural fit hence may be an important yet unnoticed factor in selection. (Kwiatkowski, 2003). For this reason structured interviews may be more successful than traditional interviews because they focus factors that better predict performance (job knowledge, interpersonal skills and P-O fit. ) As the technology has an exponential growth in the modern world, Psychometric and integrity testing (Schmidt and Hunter 1998) are most effective in assessing general intelligence and other personality factors. These tests can give some insight of personality traits of the applicant which can then be assessed to atch with the organisational culture. Nurturing P-O fit after the selection process Having found the best employees to fit into the organisation through recruiting, It is equally important for the organisation to give significance to employees within the organisation keep their P-O fit motive at higher level. The organisations though may have achieved congruence of goal and value between them and the employees, but there is a factor of uniqueness which cannot be ignored. Most of the organisations will have people from diverse cultural background. As an organisation to be successful, the management has to achieve and maintain the P-O fit effectively. Some means of achieving P-O fit in diverse culture organisation are discussed below. Managing P-O fit in organisation with high diversity The degree of dissimilarity (or diversity) between an employee and his or her co-workers will impact whether or not the employee feels that he or she fits in with the firm. Hobman, Bordia, Gallois (2003) found that employees who perceive themselves to be dissimilar from their work group also experienced greater conflict with group members as well as task-related conflict. When employees are dissimilar from the prototypical group, either visually or due to information gaps, they are less likely to feel that they belong in the organization. Some of the factors that can moderate the effect of diversity are discussed here. Organizational Climate Organizational climate reflects elements of the organizational environment, such as policies, processes, and values that are perceived by employees. Individual behaviors are often a result of perceptions of the work environment more so than of the reality of the work environment (James James, 1989). Organizations that embrace employee differences create an environment in which â€Å"all members and their cultures are appreciated and utilized to achieve organizational success† (Richard Grimes, 1996: 165). Consequently though employees may be dissimilar, the negative outcomes of dissimilarity will be diminished while the positive outcomes will be reinforced. Organizational Socialization Socialization helps determine the level of cultural congruence between the individual and the organization. Therefore, in an effort to increase perceptions of P-O fit, firms implement socialization tactics that are based on the organization’s culture. As such, socialization plays an important role in determining P-O fit. The socialization tactics (Jones,1986 and Van Maanen Schein 1979) can be individualized and institutionalized. Institutionalized socialization tactics Institutionalized socialization refers to the way in which organizations provide employees with explicit guidelines about the sequence and timing of progression in an organization (Allen Meyer, 1990). It is characterized by a structured program that encourages a custodial role orientation (i. e. employees passively accept preset roles and thus maintain homogeneity) (Jones, 1986). Institutionalized socialization produces a more homogeneous organization where innovation is inhibited and employees respond to situations very similarly. According to Allen Meyer (1990), institutionalized socialization tactics may have a negative effect on creativity and innovation. Individualized Socialization Tactics Individualized socialization involves allowing employees to make decisions regarding how tasks should be performed. There are fewer schedules, guidelines, and procedures in an organization that implements individualized tactics. An organization that employs individualized socialization is more heterogeneous because innovation is encouraged and accepted. Individualized socialization tactics promote an organization that capitalizes on differing beliefs and values. In the past, these tactics have been positively related to performance but negatively related to conflict (Ashforth Saks, 1996; Jones, 1983, 1986). Through encouraging employees to develop innovative roles and appreciating individuals differing beliefs and values, organizations may create a workplace where dissimilar employees feel valued and an important part of the success of the organization. The use of individualized socialization tactics should result in mutual respect for one another and acknowledgement of the benefits associated with diversity (i. e. creativity, innovation, and problem solving). Individualized tactics should reduce discrimination in the workplace and provide more role models or entors. As a result, dissimilar employees should not be excluded from the networks and social groups because these tactics encourage and promote staffing decisions regarding diverse individuals. Organizations will benefit from the positive consequences of diversity if tactics are used that encourage and promote diversity in the workplace. Therefore, organizations that seek to take advantage of the benefits associated with employee dissimilarity may experience the positive consequences and not the negative through using individualized tactics. This socialization process leads to a multicultural organization in which all members and their cultures are appreciated and utilized to achieve organizational success (Richard Grimes, 1996: 165). The result is an increase in creativity, problem solving, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment and a decrease in conflict and turnover (Richard Grimes, 1996). Conclusion As the concept of Organisational culture and organisation-person fit become increasingly the order of the day for many organisations to become successful, the need to manage the P-O fit has become highly important. Watt B, Busine M. Wienker E. (2005) suggest several ways organisations can embed and assess fit as part of their recruitment and selection process. †¢ Articulate the value proposition up front through recruitment advertising , which will enable in attracting the ‘right’ people. †¢ Use tools such as Realistic Job Previews and/or ‘Day in the Life’ profiles to help ap plicants self screen. †¢ Describe values in behavioural terms and use behavioural-based questions to assess suitability. Alternatively, identify competencies that align with the core values and ensure that interview questions are constructed to address these. Integrating P-O Fit in Diverse Employees and Dynamic workforce As the knowledgeable employee base has become much more competative many people expect employers to reward for work and to provide development opportunities rather than to recompense tenure or longevity in post. There is an increasing evidence that younger people are considering jobs as temporary. Positions in organisations that offer development, interesting work and equitable reward are seen more attracting than those offering stability or longevity of employment. So also is diversity a part of our society and therefore the workforce.